Chain Store – one of a system of two or more stores of similar type which are centrally owned and managed. In U.S. Census definition four or more such stores are needed to constitute a chain. See: Retailer
Chain Store System – A group of retail stores essentially the same type, centrally owned and with some degree of centralized control of operation. The term chain store may also refer to a single store as a unit of such group.
Chain Store Law – A name for the Robinson-Patman Act derived from its original intention to protect small business from the price competition the large chains were able to bring to bear because of much lower costs they incurred through price concessions achieved by large quantity buying.
Chair Easel – A vertical display held in place by a chair-like projection in front. It is dependent upon the weight of the merchandise for stability.
Channel Control – The use of inter-organization management to achieve effective coordination among the members of the channel members. Much research still needs to be done before a body of information may emerge which will permit the accomplishment of the indicated goal. Some types of channel activity, such as geographical restrictions on dealers, are already illegal. Many other areas involving management tools and incentive plans can benefit from closer attention and analysis.
Channel Cooperation – The willingness of channel members to work together to ensure important channel functions are performed.
Channel Captain – The firm acting in leadership of a trade channel which become a single, integrated system. This is not yet common in the market place. The position is earned by leadership ability and market power, rather than by appointment by anyone.
Channel Effectiveness – A channel performance dimension based on how well the channel satisfies customer needs and wants, such as for lot size, delivery time, location convenience, and assortment breadth.
Channel Efficiency – A channel performance dimension focusing on how well the firm minimizes costs associated with performing necessary channel functions.
Channel Fit – The degree to which a new product can be distributed through a channel distribution currently in use by the maker of the new product.
Channel Flows – The marketing functions performed by manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers, and other channel members within the channel. Eight universal flows that have been identified include physical possession, ownership,promotion, negotiation, financing, risking, ordering, and payment.
Channel Functions – The job tasks or activities that need to be performed in the channel.
Channel Leader – A channel member which because of its position or economic power can stipulate marketing policies to other channel members, in effect exercising control over some or all of their decisions and activities. See: Channel Captain
Channel Distribution – The course taken by the title to goods as it moves from producer to consumer through middlemen. For some products the channel has been so shortened that the producer acts himself as a middleman, selling directly to user. Same as: Trade Channel
Channel Member Commitment – The degree to which a channel relationship is stable, loyalty has been built, and each channel member is willing to make sacrifices to maintain the exchange.
Channel Member Dependence – A channel member’s need to maintain a particular channel relationship in order to achieved desired goals.
Channel Member Satisfaction – A channel member’s affective state reflecting its overall approval or disapproval of a channel relationship of another firm.
Channel of Distribution – An organized network (system) of agencies and institutions which, in combination, perform all the functions required to link producers with end customers to accomplish the marketing task.
Channel Performance – An outcome measure of the channel distribution. The performance of a distribution channel can be assessed by considering a number of performance dimensions, including channel effectiveness, channel efficiency, channel productivity, and channel profitability.
Channel Power – The ability of a particular channel member to control and influence the decision making and behavior of another channel member, or one channel member’s potential for influence with another channel member.
Channel Productivity – A channel performance dimension based on the degree to which the channels’ total investment in the various inputs necessary to achieve a given distribution objective can be optimized in terms of outputs.
Channel Profitability – A channel performance dimension based on the financial performance of channel members in terms of ROI, liquidity, leverage, growth in sales and profits, etc.
Channel Specialization – The channel members’ choice of unique positions in the channel based on their capacities, interests, goals, expectations, values, and frames of reference. Hence, each performs those tasks (participates in those channel flows) which it can be perform at a comparative advantage.
Character – (1) In print, an individual letter, figure, or other unit of type. (2) See: Credit
Characteristics of Innovations – The diffusion rate is a function of the degree to which the new product’s potential market perceives its relative advantage, trialability, observability, compatibility, and complexity. See also: Perception
Charging the Top of the Rate Card – An expression used in advertising field to denote the ability to attract new advertisers to a medium at the one-time rate because of the demand which exceeds the capacity of the medium to accommodate.
Charging What the Traffic Will Bear – a colloquial expression used to denote that the seller is asking the highest price he believes the market will pay. Usually applied to a seller in a local situation where he is thought to have a buyer group which has few choices of supply sources.
Chase – The steel frame in which type is locked up for the Letterpress printing process.
Chaser Flasher – an electrical device that produces rapid sequential lighting.
Cheating – The act of falsifying their interviews by interviewers who are paid to conduct interviews with specified respondents, but actually do not conduct them. A form of non-sampling error. See: Non-response Error, Sampling Error
Check Payment Ordering System – a specialized purchasing system applicable to small orders in which a blank, pre-signed check is sent in duplicate with the purchase order. The seller fills in the amount and returns the duplicate of the check. Partial shipment are not permitted. The check is usually limited to a small amount, perhaps $25, and a time limit of 30, 60 or 90 days is specified on the check . This system offers the possibility of savings by reducing the paper work associated with accounts payable.
Checklist – A memory-jogger list of items, used to remind an analyst to think of all relevant aspects. It finds frequent use as a tool of creativity in concept generation and as a factor-consideration list in concept screening.
Check Question– In Salesmanship, a specially phrased question designed to elicit an answer from a prospect which will provide a clue as to the progress being made toward the decision to buy. See: Trial Close
Cherry Picking – (1) The practice of selecting only certain items from a manufacturer’s lines. (2) The practice of visiting only certain selected prospects or customers in a territory.
China Eggs – Those who appear to be good prospects but who do not become customers.
Chinese Mirror – A special coated mirror that is reflective when front is lighted and transparent when back is lighted. Used in certain application at trade shows exhibit.
Chinese Walls – Intangible , policy barriers which define areas where retail salespeople cannot accompany customers who wish to buy items in those other areas. Not present just a matter of course in all retail stores.
Chi-Square Test – A method of statistical inference used frequently to test for goodness-of-fit of data to a curve, or the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the observed and the expected frequencies of observations. Tables are available which gives values designated by the symbol X2 above which the null hypothesis would be rejected at desired confidence levels. This test can accommodate an entire pattern of expected and actual frequencies. The data to be tabulated must be associated with a probability sample, must be discrete and mutually exclusive as well as independent, and the sampled and target populations must be the same. Also, each expected frequency must be at least five and the sample size at least 50. A good book on statistics should be consulted for the calculations involved and for refinements in the use of the test. Nonparametric. See: Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test, Poisson Probability Distribution.
Choice – Choice involves evaluating alternative actions or behaviors and forming a behavioral intention or plan to engage in selected behavior. Choice is the outcome of purchase decision making.
Choice Alternatives – The different behaviors considered by consumers in decision making; they are usually the products or brands considered purchase decision making.
Choice Criteria – The specific attributes or consequences used by consumers to evaluate and choose from a set of alternatives.
Choice Rule – A method by which an individual is hypothesized to make choices or decisions. A choice rule specifies the manner in which the individual evaluates each alternative under consideration.
Chroma – In color, the dimension of intensity. Hue and Value are the other two dimensions.
Chroma Key – A device permitting an image to be placed on another image on the television screen; for example, a tiny person may be made to appear dancing on the giant’s shoulder.