Coding – A technical procedure by which a data are categorized; it involves specifying alternative categories or classes in which the responses are to be placed and assigning code numbers to classes.
Coefficient of Correlation – A measure of the relationship between two or more variables, e.g., the degree of response of sales to the number of salesperson in the field. Designated by the symbol r. A value below 0.6 usually denotes negligible association among the variables studied while a value of 0.9 or more represent excellent correlation. Useful to discover with which of a series of variables one variable has the closest association. Parametric.
Coefficient of Determination – A measure of proportion of variance in the independent variable that is associated with the independent variable. Designated by the symbol r2. Parametric
Coefficient of Income Sensitivity – Indicates the average percent that the sales of a product have varied over a period of years relative to a 1% change in personal disposable income. In general it shows by how much a 1% change in spendable money may be expected to change the sales of a product.
Coefficient Of Variation – This is a relative measure of dispersion, not expressed in the unit measured as is the standard deviation. It is a ratio between two numbers and thus is useful in comparing the dispersion of groups of measurements that would otherwise not be comparable.
Coercive Influence Strategy – A means of communication that puts direct pressure on the target to perform a specific behavior or set of behaviors with adverse consequences on noncompliance stressed or implied and mediated by the source.
Cognition – How an individual perceives his environment and the attitudes he holds toward it. Often used to mean the same as Perception.
Cognitive Consonance – The psychologically satisfying state that occurs when all of a person’s bits of self-knowledge regarding a particular behavior pattern indicate that the correct action is being taken. See: Cognitive Dissonance, Cognitive Judgment
Cognitive Dissonance – A type of perceptual bias which causes feelings of regret after an important purchase has been made an alternative opportunities that were considered seem to compare more favorably. The normal course is that the buyer will tend to resolve the tension by finding more advantage in support of his action and downgrading the advantages of the rejected alternatives. If anticipated by the marketer, the first decision can be reinforced and the buyer be made a more enthusiastic supporter of the product, although there is some evidence that this may happen any way as the tension-resolving process goes on. However, it will take longer without a positive action by the seller, who can benefit if he acts to include reinforcing evidence in all his advertisements.
Cognitive Judgment – As applied to a buyer of goods and services, the result of his perceptions, or communications received from others. See: Conative Judgment, Normative Judgment, Value Judgment
Cognitive Processes – The mental activities by which external information in the environment is transformed into meanings or patterns of thought and combined to form judgments about behavior.
Cognitive Response – The thoughts a consumer has to a persuasive message such as support arguments or counterarguments.
COGS – An acronym for: Consumer Goods System, A computer-based system employing a group of IBM programs to assist in the management of inventories. Its application within the MIS include allocations and forecasting.
Cohorts –1. (consumer behavior definition) A fellow consumer or group of consumers grouped along some variable. For example, age cohort would be group of consumers of approximately the same age. 2. (marketing research definition) An aggregate of individuals who experience the same event within the same time interval.
Coincidental Survey – Some method of checking the audience of a broadcast programs while it is on the air. Most often conducted by telephone.
Coined Word – An original combination of letters and/or syllable forming a word, as opposed to words found in the dictionary. Used quite extensively for Trademarks. Example: Kodel, Zerex
COLA – Acronym for: Cost of Living Adjustment, a remuneration feature of many employment contracts.
Cold Call – Paying visit to a prospect without first making an appointment. Usually more time consuming than warranted, although indicated in certain circumstances, such as when it is thought that this may be the only way to get an appointment for a future date.
Cold Canvassing – Finding leads by going house-to-house or office-to-office in a systematic manner without previous notice to all people called upon. Sometimes used to mean the same as cold call.
Cold-Storage Warehouse – A public warehouse equipped to keep goods refrigerated, or if need be, at 0 degrees Fahrenheit or below for frozen items.
Cold Type – Same as: Photocomposituon, although this usage is incorrect. See: Impact Composition
Collaborative Agreements – A cooperation strategy between companies to jointly pursue a common goal. It is also referred to as strategic alliances or global strategic partnership.
Collateral Materials – Items of an advertising nature, such as Catalogs specification sheets, and the like, not exposed to an audience through the usual advertising media. They are often included in the listing of media as specific, separate types.
Collective Mark – A trademark or service mark used by the members of a cooperative, an association, or other collective group or organization. Marks used to indicate membership in a union, an association or other organization may be registered as collective membership mark.
Collect On Delivery – The buyer must make payment for the purchase at time of delivery of goods. it is considered a poor substitute for cash before delivery or cash in advance because if the purchaser refuses, the seller incurs return freight charges and any deterioration of the product in the process.
Collect Rate Shipment -A freight bill is a carrier’s method of charging for transportation services. If it is collect, the buyer is responsible and must pay transport costs upon arrival of the shipment.
Collusion – An illegal agreement among firms to fix prices, define products, set market shares, or otherwise act in concert in an attempt to avoid the restrictions of the anti-trust laws.