Channel – The means used to transmit communications. Channels include radio, TV, the press, and books. Channels differ from one another according to the following characteristics: capacity; effectiveness; structure; and function. See also: Communication/Mass Communication
Communication – The flow of information from one person to another (s). Each announcement, report or item of news can be considered as communication. Whenever communication is intended for a large number of recipients, it is termed “ mass communication.” Communication need not necessarily be made in language. It can also consist of gestures, body movement, facial expressions. This is non-verbal communication. See also: Mass Communication/Non-verbal Communication
Communication Effect – The consequences of making communication or sending a message that has the objective of informing or convincing. Communication effects can be intended or non-intended. See also: Communication/Communication Target Effect/Advertising Effect
Communication Science – The science of communication in all its aspects. It is an interdisciplinary study area. Many sciences make contributions to the science of communication. See also: Communication/Interdisciplinary
Communication Target Effect – Mass Communication and advertising have as their purpose the achieving of certain effects- to render conspicuous, to suggest desirability or need, etc. They are called target effects. Sometimes these intended effects are not realized. Other effects can also occur; they may not be foreseen and may work either negatively or positively.
See also: Mass Communication/Communication Effect/Advertising
Connotative Meaning – The meaning of a word, symbol or concept additional to the formal or usual meaning. Every word involves certain associations or emotions for different people. The word “car” has different connotations for each individual – or “red” or “future” or “old.” Connotative meaning can be identified by means of the semantic differential technique. See also: Semantic differential
Mass Communication – All forms of communication that are distributed from a sender or communicator, via a channel, to an unlimited number of recipients. Information, news, propaganda, and opinions are distributed via radio, TV, Newspapers, books, magazines, and films.
See also: Medium/Message?Communication/Sender/Receiver
Message – In (mass) communication the total package of symbols and signs that the sender, intending to convey information, presents to the receiver. One can distinguish the following characteristics of a message: basic content; agreement on the signs and symbols; redundancy; level of information; balance (one-sidedness); the order (of information presented); and conclusions (at the end of the message).
See also: Communication/Mass Communication/Sender
Non-verbal Communication – Communication established without use of words. Individuals emit, intentionally or not, signals and messages; they are decoded by the receiver. Examples include a wink, tapping the forehead, raising the eyes of heaven, etc. See also: Communication
Opinion Leader – An individual who takes a leadership role in the influencing of other’s attitudes and behavior in one or many areas, e.g., in the area of makeup products.
Receiver – In mass communication, the person who is intended recipient of the message. He or she must receive, interpret, and process the message. The receiver possesses the following characteristics: comprehension capacity,; selectivity; level of influence of the message on his behavior; self-respect; source credibility Trust); group membership; level of sensitivity; level of agreement or disagreement.
See also: Communication/Mass Communication/Message
Sender – Syn: Communicator
In mass communication: the person who distributes a particular message. The following attributes are ascribed to him: trustworthiness; intention; completeness; and power/influence.
See also: Source/ Communication/ Mass Communication
Sleeper Effect – Syn: Carry-over effect
1. The source from which a message comes is forgotten: a person remembers the message but forgets its source.
2. The “processing” of information after its “supply” has ceased. The communication effect remains constant or even grows after the communication (e.g., advertising) has ended. The reason for this phenomenon are assumed to have to do with the factors that have a negative effect during the actual duration of the communication (e.g.,competitive advertising).
See also: Carry-over Effect
Source – In (mass) communication, he who creates an idea, thought, opinion, etc. The source can also act as sender. See also: Communication/ Mass Communication/ Sender
Source Credibility – Syn: Credibility See: Credibility
Unintended Communication Effect – An effect in mass communications that is not intended. It is often negative or disturbing but may also be positive or simply neutral. See also: Communication target effect
Anthropology – Syn: Cultural anthropology/Ethnology
Antropos (Greek) = man. One of the social or behavioral sciences: the study of cultures. See also: Behavioral Sciences
Cultural Anthropology – Syn: Anthropology/Ethnology
Education – One of the behavioral sciences: an umbrella name for a number of areas of science that cover the imparting of knowledge and skills to adults and children. See also: Behavioral Sciences
Ergonomics – Syn: Human engineering
The interdisciplinary science that covers the problems of adapting man (and particularly his behavior) to the machine and work environment, and the machine and the work environment to man.
Ethnology – Syn: Cultural anthropology/Anthropology
Human Engineering – Syn: Ergonomics See: Ergonomics
Political Science – One of the behavioral sciences: the study of the workings, process and structure of government and political institutions. It covers everything that influences the creation and acceptance of political behavior. Subjects of study may include: voting behavior of the electorate, non-parliamentary opposition, decision-making in a political administration. See also: Behavioral Sciences