Constraint – Anything in the environment or the objectives of an investigation or action which limits its extent, scope, or area. See: Payoff, Problem, Marketing Research
Constitutive Definition – a definition in which a given construct is defined in terms of other constructs in the set, sometimes in the form of an equation that expresses the relationship among them.
Constructive Distribution – Designing Channels of Distribution offering facilities and services necessary to insure satisfied customers.
Construct Validity – An attribute of an attitude measure that involves the degree to which a given attitude is consistent with the total mix of a person’s attitudes or personality dimensions. See: Content Validity, Predictive Validity, Validity
Consultative Selling – A customized sales presentation approach in which the salesperson is viewed as an expert and serves as a consultant to the customer. The salesperson identifies the prospect’s needs and recommends the best solution even if the best solution does not require the salesperson’s product or services.
Consumable Supplies – Same as: Operating Supplies The products that are used up or consumed in the operation of business. Examples are cleaning compounds, business forms, soaps and small tools.
Consumer – (1) A person who purchases for personal or household use. (2) Anyone who uses up the utilities embodied in goods and services. In marketing, one must consider the motives and habits inferred in (1), ans at the same time take into account the influence of (2). Industrial and institutional purchasers should be called users.
Computer Analysis – The study of the consumer using appropriate marketing research techniques to establish as many psychological, sociological, and demographic understandings as possible considering available time and resources.
Consumer Behavior – The manifestations of the decision processes and the search activities involved in acquiring and using goods and services. The entire range of activities in which consumers engage when in the search process. It is now a special field of marketing research.
Consumer Behavior Odyssey – A team of researchers that traveled across the country in the summer of 1986 interviewing, filming, and recording the behavior of consumers engaging in various consumption activities.
Consumer Choice Model – A model attempting to represent how consumers use and combine information about alternatives in order to make a choice among them.
Consumer Cooperative – A marketing organization owned and operated for the mutual benefit of consumer-owners who have voluntarily associated themselves for the purpose.
Consumer Credit – Credit used by individuals or families for the satisfaction of their own wants. Also, it is the granting of credit by retailers, banks, and finance companies for this purpose.
Consumer Deal – A price reduction to a consumer usually offered in one of the following ways: sale of multiple units at a special price for the package, a cents-off coupon, one package for 1cent with the purchase of a given number, one unit of new product with one unit of an old product at less than the sum of the two. See: Deal
Consumer Decision Making Unit – The decision maker in the family, organization, or group. The decision making unit need not necessarily be a single individual, but may be a committee or informal set of individuals that makes the final choices. Often the decision reflects not only the attributes of the products being considered, but also the influence patterns found in formal and informal groups.
Consumer Goods – (1) Goods bought for a personal or household satisfactions, (2) Goods used directly in satisfying human wants. See: Consumer
Consumer Education – The formalized teaching effort s to provide consumers with skills and knowledge to allocate their resources wisely in the market place.
Consumer Expenditure – A survey of a representative sample of the U.S. population conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics to provide a continuous flow of data on the buying habits of American consumers. The survey consists of two components: an interview panel survey of five interviews every three months, and a diary or record keeping survey of households for two consecutive one-week periods.
Consumerism – An increasingly prominent activity by consumers and government to take the necessary measures to protect the general public from misinterpretation, poorly male goods, bad service, and obscure warranties. It is forcing business to assume a real responsibility of its product.
Consumer Finance Company – A lending agency licensed under state laws to engage in the business of lending money to consumers. It is also referred to as a personal finance company.
Consumer Information – The policies aimed at providing consumers with marketplace information and fostering effective utilization leading to improved consumer choice.
Consumer Information Processing (CIP) – The mental processes by which consumers interpret information from the environment to make it meaningful and integrate that information to make decisions.
Consumer Jury – A method of pretesting products or advertisements by getting the reactions of potential purchasers or users. See: Panel
Consumer Motivation – The needs, wants, drives and desires of an individual that lead him or her toward the purchase of products or ideas. The motivations may be physiologically, psychologically, or environmentally driven.
Consumer Movement – A mix of people, ideas, and organizations representing previously unrepresented groups or concerns and having change or reform as common ends.
Consumer-Perceived Risks – In making product decisions, the consumer usually considers these uncertainties: 1) functional risk (perhaps the product will not do what it is said to be able to do); 2) physical risk (could it do injury to the physical self of someone?); 3) financial risk (product may not be worth its cost); 4) social risk (could it cause embarrassment?); 5) psychological risk (danger of bruised ego)
Consumer Price Index (CPI)– A statistical measure maintained by the U.S. government that shows the trend of prices of goods and services (a market basket) purchased by consumers.
Consumer/Product Relationship – The relationship between consumers and a product or brand. It is how consumers perceive the product by relating to their goal and values. The consumer/product relationship is important to consider in developing marketing strategies.
Consumer Product – A product produced for, and purchased by, households for their use.
Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC)– A federal regulatory agency that conducts investigations on consumer product safety, tests consumer products, provides training in product safety, promulgates product safety standards, and collects data relating to causes and prevention of injury associated with consumer products.
Consumer Protection – The body of federal, state, and local government legislation designed to assure safety, purity,quality, and efficacy of many products and services and the reliability of statements in advertising about them.
Consumer Relations – The communication efforts used to support the sale of a product or service. This generally includes product publicity, company image advertising, interaction with consumer groups, and consumer inquiry response systems.
Consumer Research – A subclass of marketing research, it is concerned with the investigation to discover, the assembly, and the analysis of data which may make more predictable the behavior of the consumer in the market.
Consumer Rights – Originally stated by President John F. Kennedy and subsequently reflected in much legislation, they are: the right to safety, the right to be informed, the right to choose, the right to be heard. See: Consumerism
Consumers’ Cooperative – A voluntary association of consumers, organized to fulfill some of their needs for goods and services. A credit union is an example of this type of organization.