Content Analysis – Used in the social sciences to examine communications messages by a systematic technique involving categorizing the messages according to predetermined rules and then treating them statistically. It has been used for such diverse purposes as testing the effectiveness of advertising substantiation and proving the authorship of the “Federalist Papers”.
Content Validity – An attribute of a questionnaire which relates the relevance of the items in the questionnaire to the total attitude being scaled. See: Construct Validity, Predictive Validity, Validity
Contest – A competition based on skill in which prizes are offered. Care must be taken that this not be interpretable as a lottery, which might be illegal according to the laws of the several states.
Contingency Contract – An agreement to deliver goods at a price to be determined either by the actual costs incurred while performing the service or producing the product or by the measured value realized after the service has been performed or the product has been used.
Contingency Planning – Development of plans to provide an alternative to the main plan in the event of threats or opportunities that were thought to have a low probability of occurring at the time of preparation of the main plan. The contingency plan deals not with unforeseen events, but with events that were foreseen but considered unlikely to occur.
Contingency Pricing – The setting of a price based either on actual costs incurred after the service has been performed or the product produced or on the measured value the buyer realizes because of the service or product.
Contingent Reward Leadership – A leadership style wherein sales manager maintain close supervision with their salespeople. In essence, using the leadership style entails identifying and clarifying job tasks for the salespeople, defining the objectives, recommending how to execute job assignments, and indicating how successful performance will lead to attainment of desired job rewards.
Continuity – (1) Repetition of the same basic theme, layout, or format in advertising. (2) Repeated use of the same media. (3) Script for television, radio, or film production. (4) The period of time over which a steady advertising effort is sustained.
Continuity Plan – Any type of consumer sales promotion technique that encourages customers to purchase products on a continuing basis or overtime. the plan often is based on some sort of saving or accumulation scheme such as trading stamps, points, coupons, or the like.
Continuity Program – The offering by a retailer of a number of related premiums at regular interval over a period of time. Generally self-liquidating. May be items of cookware at the rate of one week, or an assortment of various size picture, etc.
Continuity-Strip Copy – Same as: Narrative copy, but with greater emphasis on the pictorial elements to heighten interest and convey the impression.
Continuous Data – These are gathered whenever the elements of a population or sample are measured. They may be whole or fractional numbers. See: Discrete Data
Continuous Innovation – (1) A modification of an existing product rather than an entirely new concept. Effects little change in established buying patterns. (2) One of a four-way classification of new products as to degrees of newness, this type usually involves some alteration of a product but causes little disruption in established buying patterns. The others are: Congruent, Discontinuous, and Dynamically Continuous. Proposed by Thomas S. Robertson.
Continuous Media Pattern – A timing pattern used in a media plan whereby the advertising messages are scheduled continuously throughout the time period covered by the media plan.
Continuous Plan – A series of regular mailings to a fixed list. May be in the nature of a certain sort f material sent at regular intervals, e.g., a House Organ, or a group of miscellaneous materials sent on a more or less regular schedule. Particularly useful for an advertiser who has a definite group of customers or prospects before whom he needs to keep his name and product o service, and whose offerings are reasonably constant or recurring demand. Most of the effect of this plan is to develop a favorable attitude toward the seller, thereby indirectly assisting the sales department. Determining a way of measuring the impact of this plan is often difficult problem. See: Direct Mail Advertising
Continuous Replenishment (CR)– A finished product inventory management system where high volume items are shipped in addition to requested replenishment products in anticipation of actual demand. high volume items are utilized to provide the benefits of full truckload deliveries.
Continuous Tone – Illustration shading accomplished by a method other that the use of the halftone dot.
Contraceptive Social Marketing (CSM)– The application of commercial marketing technology to the promotion of contraceptive products (condoms, birth control pills, etc.) as part of public or private nonprofit family planning program.
Contract – The agreement between two or more persons that creates an obligation to do a particular thing. Its essentials are competent parties, subject matter, legal considerations, mutuality of agreement , and mutuality of obligation.
Contract Account – A retailer’s customer with whom there is an agreement that stipulates periodic payments on the basis of a fixed percent of the amount owing as shown by a statement sent regularly.
Contract Carrier – A transportation company serving on an individual contract basis. Some states require that these be licensed. 2. ( physical distribution definition) A contract carrier performs transportation services on a selected basis after receiving authorization in the form of a permit. The contract refers to the agreement between the shipper and a contract carrier. 3. (retailing definition) A transportation company that provides shipping service to one or various shippers on a contract basis. It does not maintain regularly scheduled service and its rates are more easily adapted to specific situations that are hose of a common carrier.
Contact Carrier Conference – Same as CCC
Contract Department – A unit in a department store set up to sell in quantity to institutions such supplies as food, bedding, floor coverings; a department that arranges for the sale of goods in quantity to large buyers at special prices.
Contract Grades – Those grades of a commodity which have been officially approved by a commodity exchange as deliverable in settlement of a future contract. See: Basis Grades
Contract Manufacturing – A joint venture method by which work is contracted to a qualified manufacturer to produce the product(s) that the firm wishes to market. Contract manufacturing offers a chance to enter a market faster with less risk, but has the drawback of less control over manufacturing process.
Contract, tying – This exists when a person agrees to sell one product, the “tying product”, only on the condition that the vendee also purchaseanother product. the “tied product.” It is also called a tie-in arrangement under the Sherman Antitrust Act or Clayton Act.
Contractual Integration – Integration by agreement, leaving all establishments separately owned. Examples: Franchising, Voluntary Chain
Contractual Vertical Marketing System – Operates as does a voluntary chain except that individual establishments retain their own identities. (retailing definition) A form of vertical marketing system in which independent firms at different levels in the channel operate contractually to obtain the economies and market impacts that could be obtained by unilateral action. Under this system, the identity of the individual firm and its autonomy of operation remain intact. (channels of distribution definition) A marketing channel that achieves vertical coordination between independent firms at different channel levels through the use of contractual agreements. The three principal types of contractual system are franchise system, retailer sponsored cooperative, and wholesaler sponsored cooperative.
Contract Year – In advertising, a space contract running for one year from the first insertion under the contract.
Contrast – A technique in advertising which attempts to emphasize how two products differ from one another in a way that is commercially beneficial to the advertiser’s product. See: Comparison
Contribution – The amount of revenue left over from the sale of a product after the direct costs and indirect costs related to the product have been subtracted out.
Contribution Pricing – Setting a price below standard cost but above variable costs. Even one dollar above variables cost adds to what is available to pay fixed costs. See: Marginal Cost, Marginal Revenue