Control Character – A character in ADP whose occurrence in a certain context initiates, modifies or stops a control operation, e.g., a character to control print line spacing.
Control Group – the group of individuals associated with a test Group in a marketing research activity but who are not exposed to the variable being studied. The existence of a control group makes possible the assessment of the effectiveness of the studied variable by providing the sum results of all other influencing factors with which to compare.
Controllable Cost – The cost that varies in volume, efficiency, choice of alternatives, and management determination. It is also any cost an organizational unit has authority to incur and/or ability to change.
Controllable Expenses – Those business expenses which in many instances can be reduced without seriously affecting the operation as a whole, at least in the near term. See: Variable Costs
Controlled Brand – Same as: Controlled Label
Controlled Circulation – A circulation of specialized publications delivered free to individuals selected by some relevant criteria. There is a trend toward calling it “Qualified Circulation.” To meet BPA standards, the publication must be issued quarterly or oftener, and must contain no less than 25% editorial matter.
Controlled Label – Same as: Private Label, but sometimes applied particularly to the brand owned by a wholesaler, and sometimes to that of a wholesaler who runs voluntary chain. There appears to be a trend toward using the name of the company itself as a controlled label for a line of merchandise.
Controlled Test Market – A market in which an entire marketing test program is conducted by outside service.
Convenience Good – The type of item which the consumer usually desires to purchase with a minimum of effort at the most convenient and accessible place. While product may be so classified on a broad base, a specific item maybe classified only if the attitude of the consumer toward the item is known. See: Shopping Good, Specialty Good
Convenience Product -A consumer good and/or service (such as soap, candy bar, and shoe shine) that is bought frequently, often on impulse, with little time and effort spent on buying process. A convenience product usually is low-priced and is widely available.
Convenience Sample – Data collected from the most readily available elements of an appropriate population. No known way of measuring the degree of accuracy of the sample can be applied to a sample chosen this way. See: Judgment Sample, Probability Sample
Convenience Store – A retail institution whose primary advantage to consumers is locational convenience. It is usually a high-margin, high inventory turnover retail institution.
Convergent Marketing – A way of organizing the marketing activity within the firm so that all the same resources are used to sell all the products made. Has the possible advantage of Economies of Scale.
See: Divergent Marketing
Convergent Validity – The confirmation of the existence of a construct determined by the correlations exhibited by independent measures of the construct.
Conversion – The process in an ADP system of changing information from one form of representation to another, e.g., from the language of one type of machine to that of another type, or from punched cards to magnetic tape to the printed page. See: Converter
Conversional Marketing – Those activities designed to deal with negative demand so as to develop the market’s thinking about and reaction to the product up to a positive level sufficient to absorb a reasonable quantity of the available supply.
Converter – (1) A merchant middleman in the textile industry who incidental to the usual wholesale functions performed as a service wholesaler, finishes,dyes, prints, etc. the cloth to make it more salable. His manufacturing activities are so small compared to his other functions that he is regarded as a wholesale middleman. (2) In ADP, a machine capable of performing the conversion process. Editing the facilities are sometimes included to assist the user.
Conveyor – A materials handling device widely used in shipping and receiving operations. Conveyors are classified as power of gravity, with roller or belt movement.
Cooperative – An establishment owned by an association of customers of the establishment whether or not they are incorporated. In general, the distinguishing features of a cooperative are patronage dividends based on the volume of expenditures by the members and a limitation of one vote per member regardless of the amount of stocked owned.
Cooperative Advertising – (1) A way of attempting to induce local advertising by a middleman of a manufacturer’s product, in which the manufacturer’s offers to pay some portion ( most commonly 50%) or all of the cost of the middleman’s advertisement must have the prior approval of the manufacturer. Frequently used by the wholesalers, especially to promote a Private Brand. (2) The promotion carried out jointly by the firms in an industry through a trade association. (3) A joint venture in advertising by two or more firms.
Cooperative Buying – Any and all consolidations of orders by a number of stores or store buyers in separate stores. it is also called affiliated buying.
Cooperative Chain – An organization in which a group of retailers become the stockholders of a wholesale company established to serve themselves. See: Voluntary Chain
Cooperative Elevator – A grain elevator controlled by the farmers who have united to establish it to serve themselves.
Cooperative Exporting – The cooperation of domestic firms for the purpose of international exports. Firms that compete domestically may collaborate internationally.
Cooperative Group – A contractual marketing system in which retailers combine to form a wholesale warehouse operation. Its services to retailer members are primarily large-scale buying and warehousing operations.
Cooperative Mailing – The inclusion of several messages from different advertisers in the same envelope in a mass mailing from a List. Addressing, postage and cover costs are shared.
Same as: Group Mailing
Cooperative Marketing – The process by which independents producers, wholesalers, retailers, consumers, or combinations of them act collectively in buying or selling or both.
Cooperative Wholesaler – A wholesale business owned by retail merchants. Typically, the wholesale establishment buy in its own name. Examples exist in the food, drug, and hardware lines.
Coordinates – See: Ensemble Displaying
Copy – In a broad sense, all verbal and visual elements which are included in a finished advertisement. Used more narrowly to designate the verbal elements only. The latter is probably more common,
Copy Approach – The method of opening the text of an advertisement. It may be factual, imaginative, or human interest.
Copy Casting – Sane as: Copy Fitting
Copy Fitting – Similar in purpose to Casting-off but more precise in its use of mathematical computations which include provisions for white space and leading.
Copy Outline – Same as: Copy Platform
Copy Platform – The statement of the basic idea for an advertising Campaign and any instructions as to the order of significance of the various selling points and elements of any advertisement.
Copy Research – The testing of audience reactions to advertising messages while an advertising is being developed (pre-testing) or after the advertising has been produced in final form (called post-testing).
Copyfitting – The process of calculating how much space a given amount of text will require on a printed page and rewriting the copy, if necessary, to fit into the available space.
Copyright – Legal protection granted an author or artist against the reproduction and sale of an original work without express consent. Until 1977 the grant was for 28 years and could be renewed for another 28 years. Now the period of grant is for the originator’s lifetime plus 50 years. 2. (legislation definition) A copyright offers the owner of original work that can be printed, recorded, or “fixed” in any manner the sole right to reproduce and distribute the work, to display or perform it, and to authorize others to do so, during the author’s lifetime and for fifty years thereafter. 3. (product development definition) An exclusive right to the production or sale of literary, musical, or other artistic work, or to the use of a print or a label. Occasionally, it is applied to a brand, but brands are usually protected by registration in the Patent and Copyright Office as a trademark.