Coverage Area – The geographic area in which a station’s signal can be received satisfactorily. See: Coverage Map
Coverage Map – A map showing the prime area of a medium’s reach within a market. In Transit Advertising it usually includes street patterns and transit system routes.
Cowcatcher -In broadcast media, a brief announcement preceding a program and featuring another product of the advertiser. See: Hitchhike
CPI – Abbreviation for: Consumer Price Index, a relative measure issued by the U.S. Government, which shows the trend of prices of Consumer Goods, including food, clothing, shelter, recreational items; of services, including professional fees, repair costs, transportation and utilities costs; and of sales,excise, and real estate taxes. It takes into account more than 80% of aggregate private expenditures. A weakness of this index is that its “market basket” is defined in accordance with the average expenditure patterns of moderate income city dwellers, both single and married, and thus may not adequately reflect the prices paid by nor the expenditure patterns of other population groups. In process of revision to reflect the new base of an updated survey of expenditures made in 1972-3 with plans for more frequent surveys, and the inclusion of mere and different items in its “market basket.”
CPM – (1) Abbreviation for: cost per thousand. Must be specified as referring to readers, viewers, circulation, etc. Used in comparing the costs of alternative vehicles of advertising. (2) Abbreviation for: Critical Path Method, essentially the same as CPS.
CPS – Abbreviation for: Critical Path Scheduling, a planning technique using a diagram that shows which jobs must be completed before other jobs can be started, and the times expected. See: PERT
Crawl – The lists of credits usually shown after a television show. These appear to be on a scroll which moves at some pace determined by the station. It is most frequently moves vertically, but can be made to move horizontally.
Creative Boutique – A limited-service advertising agency that focuses its work on the development of highly effective (creative) advertising messages for its clients.
Creative Selling – Employing that type of salesmanship which creates demand. It proves the benefits of an offering to those who have never bought that item from that salesperson before. See: Service Selling
Credit – The attribute of a buyer which enables him to gain immediately possession of a product or service on his promise to pay at some determinable later date.
See: Three Cs of Credit
Credit Bureau – An organization that collects, maintains, and provides credit information to members and subscribers; sometimes cooperatively owned by users of the service. It maintains an up-to-date file containing a so-called master card (of credit information) for each consumer who has asked for credit from local merchants who use the service of the bureau.
Credit Limit – The maximum quantity of credit that may be allowed to be outstanding on an individual customer account.
Credit Union – A cooperative savings and loan organization formed for the purpose of encouraging thrift among members and making loans to them at relatively low rates of interest.
Creepie-Peepie – A hand-held TV camera, such is often used in the reporting of sports events.
Crisis – See: Business Cycle
Criteria Rights – In purchasing, the authority granted mangers to set performance standards for their subordinates. See: Allocation Rights, Evaluation Rights, Policy Rights, Sampling Rights
Criterion Variable – Same as: Dependent Variable
Crop – Trimming the edges of an illustrated plate or removing pieces to change proportions or removing unwanted sections.
Cross-Couponing – A coupon given with one item, which carries the price reduction offer for another item. May involve more than one seller. See: Couponing, Punch-Card Coupon
Cross Elasticity of Demand – Defines the extent to which a percent change in the price of one product affects the sale of another. Where the ratio is high ( a small change in price of product A results in a large change in the sales of Product B), the products involved may be construed to be in the same market. Where the ratio is low, the possibility of substitution is so remote that the products must be regarded as being in a separate markets. This concept has been used by the courts is some anti-trust actions. See: Complementary Goods, Substitutional Goods
Cross Hauling – Transporting goods from one point to another while goods of the same nature are being transported in the opposite direction. See: Back Hauling
Cross Impact Analysis – A forecasting technique often used in futures research that logically studies the effects of the interaction of specified events with each other. The wide variety of impacts that can occur are analyzed and assessed to determine the overall effect. It has been used to assess market and product opportunities.
Cross Plugs – An alternate sponsorship, the substitution of one minute of commercial time from one sponsor’s program for that of his partner’s, thus maintaining weekly exposure for both.
Cross Ruff – A consumer sales promotion technique in which a noncompetitive product is used as the vehicle to distribute a coupon, sample, or other sales promotion offer for another product.
Cross-Ruff Promotion – An advertisement or promotional program involving cents-off deals, couponing, product sampling, and premiums, in which two or more companies join to link brands. Companies engaging in this activity usually deal directly with one another and each continues to promote its own brands.
Cross- Selling –1. Indicates that a sales clerk is permitted to work in more tan one department in a retail store. A customer may thus be helped by one clerk for all of his purchases. 2. (retailing definition) The process of selling between and among departments to facilitate larger transactions and to make it more convenient for the customer to do related item shopping. 2. (sales promotion definition) a consumer sales promotion technique in which the manufacturer attempts to sell the consumer products related to a product the consumer already uses or which the marketer has available.
Cross Tabulation – A count of the number of cases that fall into each of several categories when the categories are based on two or more variables considered simultaneously.
Cross-Elasticity of Demand – A measure of the extent to which a change in the price of one product affects the sale of another – e.g., a small percentage change in the price of Product A may result in a large change in the sales of Product B.
Cross-Sectional Study – An investigation involving a sample of elements selected from the population of interest that are measured at a single point in time.
Crow’s Feet – Metal brackets which fit into pole slots at right angles to each other, forming feet for a Pop Pole Display.
CRT – Abbreviation for: Cathcode Ray Tube, important for display of information for direct reading either before or after input into a data processing or word processing system.
Crude Birth Rate – The birth rate on an annual basis. The number of live births per year per thousand population.
CTO Pricing – Contribution to overhead Pricing. Setting price at some point greater than the amount of variable cost associated with producing or distributing a particular product or service.
Cubed Out – Refers to a transport vehicle’s filling its available space before reaching its allowable maximum weight for a load.