Daily Effective Circulation – In outdoor advertising, the number of persons who may be expected to observe a message. Usually measures as one-half of all persons passing the display in cars and trucks plus one-quarter of total mass-transit passengers.

Data System – The part of a decision support system that includes the processess used to capture and the methods used to store data coming from a number of external and internal sources.

Database – A compendium of information on current and prospective customers that generally includes demographic and psychographic data as well as purchase history and a record of brand contacts.

Database Marketing – An approach by which computer database technologies are harnessed to design, create, and manage customer data lists containing information about each other customer’s characteristics and history of interactions with the company. The lists are used as needed for locating, selecting, targeting, servicing, and establishing relationships with customers in order to enhance the long-term value of these customers to the company. The techniques used for managing lists include: 1. database manipulation methods such as select and join. 2. statistical methods for predicting each customer’s likelihood of future purchase of specific items based on his/her history of past purchases, and 3. measures for computing the life-time value of customer on an ongoing basis.

Dating – The practice of extending credit for a longer period than regular by calculating the credit period from a date later than the one in which the invoice was issued. See: Terms of Sales

Day-after-recall – A method of testing the performance of an ad or a commercial whereby members of the audience are surveyed one day after their exposure to an ad or commercial in an advertising vehicle to discover how many of the audience member encountering that specific ad or commercial in the advertising vehicle.

Day-Glo – Name of inks and paints that fluoresce in sunlight or black-light.

Day Parts – The way in which a broadcast medium divides its on-the-air time. Most frequently it is: morning, afternoon, early evening, night and late night. See: Drive Time, Fringe Time, Prime Time

DCA – Abbreviation for: Distribution Cost Analysis, an accounting system for determining the profit contribution of the firm’s individual products. Takes into account channels of distribution, geographic variables, handling peculiarities and other differences among the product cost factors.
See: Total Cost Approach

Deal – An inducement such as a price reduction, free goods offer, or other special offering made by a seller to a channel member or the ultimate consumer, generally for a limited period of time.

Deal Merchandise – A product that a seller may offer at a reduced price or may have been specially bundled, processed, or manufactured for a limited period of time.

Dead Corner – Any location in a retail shopping area which is either vacant or is used for non-retailing purposes so that it is adversely affects the drawing power of the area for retailing purposes, or tends to halt the flow of shopper traffic between two retailing areas.

Deadheading – Returning empty vehicles and their crews after completing a shipment.
See: Private Carrier

Dead Matter – Matter which is of no no further use. See: Live Matter

Dead Metal – Portions of a metal engraving which do not print but are needed to support the engraving during electrotyping. Same as: Bearers

Dead Space – Water carrier space engaged but not used by a shipper. (2) Any available but unoccupied space on a carrier.

Dead Stock – Items in inventory for which there is no demand. See: Stickers

Deadweight Tonnage – The total number of gross tons of cargo, stores and fuel that a vessel can transport. It is calculated by subtracting from the number of tons of water displaced by a ship empty.

Deal – An inducement offered to a merchant middleman to buy a special quantity of a product at one time. May involve a quantity free of the same goods or an assortment of items to be bought as a unit with a better-than-usual margin. See: Consumer Deal

Dealer -(1) a merchant middleman who buys goods for resale to consumers. (2) Industry practice sometimes makes this term synonymous with Industrial Distributor, although most often applied to a retailer. See: Authorized Dealer

Dealer Incentive – A pop display incorporating as one of its parts a desirable unit for the dealer to take home.

Dealer Privilege – A card or similar display piece which carries an advertisement on one side and provides for the retailer’s message on the other.

Dealer Tie-In – Participation by a dealer in a National Advertiser’s promotional program. It may be in a variety of ways, such as in the use of pop materials, Cooperative Advertising, Contests, etc.

Deal-Pack – An item of merchandise with a premium attached. Wholesalers and Retailers expect some compensation for handling this because regular merchandise must be withdrawn during the promotion period.

Debugging -(1) The process of correcting planning or engineering errors. (2) In ADP, the process of determining the correctness of a computer routine and fixing any errors found in it. (3) The detection and correction of malfunctions in the computer itself.

Decay Rate – The proportion of customers lost in a year. Has much to do with the brand switching propensity of the market. Indicates the amount of weakening of the effects of prior marketing efforts. Recognition of this factor explains the need for continued marketing effort just to maintain current share. See: Carryover Effects

Decentralization -Assignment of responsibilities and authority involving decision-making functions to an organization unit lower in the firm’s hierarchy by a higher unit.

Deceptive Packaging – The use of packages that because of size or shape may create the impression that they contain more of the product than is actually there, or that the product is larger than it actually is. See: Fair Packaging and Labeling Act

Deciles – Found in the same general manner as the median, except that deciles divide the array into ten tenths.

Decision – A determination of a course of action relevant to a problem, or the reduction of a question to an actionable answer. See: Problem Solving

Decision Rule – A statement of the conditions which if found as the result of a marketing research study or other valid test would mandate a particular course of action in the firm. Examples: “If at least 40% of the potential market for a new product are found to react positively toward it, go ahead with its introduction.” “Test every twentieth unit of a shipment of parts. If less than 5% of this sample are defective, accept the entire shipment.

Decision Support System ( DSS) – 1. (marketing research definition) A coordinated collection of data, system tools, and techniques with supporting software and hardware by which an organization gathers and interprets relevant information from business and environment and turns it into basis for making management decisions. 2. (models definition) A system, usually based on a model and computer software package, that describes the implications of specific marketing decision and/or recommends specific marketing actions, using a set of input information. This information may either reside permanently in the DSS or be input for the particular scenario of interest (or both). The information can consist of primary information (e.g., sales and cost information from company records, or subjective judgment by managers about likely impact of increased advertising spending) and/or secondary information (e.g., sales of competitors’ products from a syndicated database constructed via store audits). An important aspect of many decision support system is the facilitation of “what if” analyses; e.i., the sensitivity of optimal marketing strategy to the assumptions in the input information.

Decision Variables, Marketing – These correspond to the major marketing functions that influence revenue and profit. They are summarized in well known four P’s: product, price, promotion, and place (distribution). Other marketing decision variables may include service policies, credit, and so forth.


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