Affect – An indefinite term of various meanings – feeling, mood, emotion.
Association – Literally: conjunction, connection, combination,. Indefinite term often used to indicate the relation or connection between two or more phenomena, objects or elements.
Behavior – A key concept in psychology: it pertains to all activities of the human organism in terms of personal conduct that can be perceived and recorded. Examples of behavior: purchasing, reading, running, thinking – in sofar as these actions can be registered by means of instruments.
Behavioral Determinants – All factor that (may) influence behavior- for example, climate, age, situation, etc.
Black Box – In psychological terms, a model for phenomena that are difficult to define. For example: how does the thinking process actually take place? In what manner does advertising achieve its effects? The usefulness in research of the black box is limited. It is possible to feel, smell, shake, weigh or carry out an X-ray analysis; however, conclusions based on superficial observation are necessarily superficial.
Cognition – Cognito (Latin) =Acquiring understanding, insight. A field of study within the discipline pf experimental psychology (psychonomics) than encompasses all forms of knowing and knowledge: thinking, learning, judging, etc.
Covert Behavior – Behavior not easily perceived: equipment is required to measure or record such behavior – for example, thought processes, feelings. It can also be studied by means of introspection. It opposite is termed overt behavior. See also: Introspection/ Over Behavior
Decision (making) Process – A process that precedes the making of a decision by one or more persons. It usually signifies all intellectual activities on the part of the person making a decision. The manner in which a decision has been arrived at is studied: was it achieved on a rational (or on an emotional) basis? In a systematic manner? What determinants entered into it?
Decision Model – A systematic and/or mathematical model for decision making: an abstract, theoretical whole. The model serves to anticipate and quantify, as far as possible, rational and emotional variables. For example: a model for the purchase of durable consumer goods includes not only variables such as supply and demand but also (subjective) variables such as a degree of willingness to purchase and price perception. See also: Model/Variable/Demand/Supply/Decision (making) Process
Developmental Psychology – Syn: Life-span psychology
One of the five basic fields of psychology, involving research into human behavior from birth to death, from the perspective of development. Subjects for study include marriage and family, circumstances of work, education for road users, the relationship between purchases and phases of life, etc.
See also: Education
Experimental Psychology _ Syn: Psychonomics
One of the five basic field of psychology: it involves the study of general human capabilities and functions such as those that are rooted in the psychological structure of man. Experimental psychology leans towards physiology. Major areas of study within the field of experimental psychology are: learning (advertising), cognition (attitudes), emotion, motivation, sensor functions (taste, smell). See also: Learning/Cognition/Motivation
Fundamental Taste Qualities – The four primary taste sensations known to the human being: sweet, bitter, salty, sour (acid). (The tongue has four taste-sensitive areas.)
Intrapsychic – within the psyche. A rather indefinite term referring to processes that occur in the psyche, mind or consciousness of the individual that cannot be perceived or registered. Example: Thought processes.
Introspection – Literally: looking withing (inside). The description of personal feelings, ideas, etc., during an experiment or research study. The research subject tells the experimenter his feelings, thoughts, assumptions, etc. The object may be to study thought processes, but the experience may also serve to make the researcher take into consideration the research subject as a human being, so that future experiments will be more “people oriented.”
Methodology – One of the five basic fields of psychology, involving scientific methods. Methodology is divided into two aspects: normative and descriptive. The normative aspect prescribes norms and rules to be adhered to by those carrying out research ( in the event they fail to do so, their findings are considered invalid). Methodology also involves the question of responsibility of the researcher. Descriptive methodology defines the manner in which research must proceed. It is supported by statistics as scientific aid. Methodology also prescribes the manner in which tests, questionnaires, scales, etc., must be designed.
Overt Behavior – Behavior that can easily be perceived without the need for measurement or registration instruments. Its opposite is called covert behavior. See also: Covert Behavior
Personality (basic field of psychology) – One of the five basic fields of psychology, it involves the study of the behavioral potential of the individual, both normal and abnormal. It also involves specific (unique) personality traits: similarities to and differences from others. Subjects of study are, for example: personality traits of consumption-pioneers; differences between liberal and conservative individuals. See also: Consumption pioneers
Personality (person) 1. All behavioral characteristics of a specific individual.
2. A way of reacting to the problems of life.
3. Those aspects which make an individual unique and different from other individuals.
Personality Trait – Syn: Personality Characteristics
The tendency to repeatedly react in a specific, particular manner. Examples of personality traits: laziness, lust of power, craftiness, stinginess. See also: Personality (person)