Consumer Protection Groups – Syn: Consumer unions/Consumer councils See: Consumer unions
Consumer Protection Legislation – Laws that have primary objectives of protecting consumers and buyers against among other things, misleading advertising and dangerous products and services. This legislation varies widely by country. See also: Consumer unions
Consumer Unions – Syn: Consumer councils/Consumer protection groups
Consumers in various countries and in various product/ service user categories have frequently associated in one form or another to represent and protect interests of group members. Often fragmented and national in character, they have sometimes considerable influence at government and judicial levels and often act as a pressure group. They are usually politically and financially independent. See also: Consumer Protection Legislation
Consumerism – A social movement that attempts to develop the rights and powers of consumers in relation to those of sellers and suppliers. Includes the promotion of the position to those of sellers and suppliers. Includes the promotion of the position of the consumer society. Consumerism is promoted among others by groups representing the interests of the consumer in the society. Consumerism is promoted among others by groups representing the interests of consumers.
See also: Consumer Protection Legislation/ Consumer Unions
Consumption Pattern – Habits of buyers and consumers and use of products and services. An example would be the relatively high purchase frequency of cosmetics in supermarkets.
Consumption Pioneers – Syn: Innovators People who, before others, purchase and use new products, brands and services. These people are always ready to take risks and try something new. Consumption pioneers are quite different from late buyers. They possess different personality characteristics. See also: Life cycle/Personality
Consumption Time – The period within which a product is consumed. It may vary from a few seconds for candy to 50 years for a house.
Customer – Syn: Client, Patron See: Consumerism
D.M.U.– Abbreviation in common use for Decision-making unit. See also: Decision-making Unit
Decision-making Unit – A group within an organization collectively responsible for purchasing certain products or services. Often formed on a project basis. It is difficult to study commercial decision-making processes within a D.M.U. (What degree of influence has each individual in the final decision? How do the different members of the group interact? Etc.).
Demarketing – Taking one or more products off the market. The decision to do so may be based on one or more of the following considerations: a) there is too much competition; b) the profit margin is under (constant) pressure; or c) the manufacturer wishes to concentrate on a particular product or target group. Demarketing releases funds that can be allocated to other products, e.g., an office equipment manufacturer halts production of copiers to concentrate on calculators.
Derivative objective – Sub-objective based on the main objective; e.g., main objective is: determine the position of Sony in the home video consumer market; derivative objective is: determine the aided awareness of Sony in this market. See: Objectives
Differentiations – Form of market segmentation whereby the company offering a particular service or product puts it on the market in a variety of ways (different packaging, colors, quantities, prices, etc.) -for example, General Motors markets cars in many price categories, in a great number of different models and colors. See: also: Assortment/Range
Down-scale Consumer – Less well-off consumer with less to spend than the “average” consumer. Buys cheaper makes and services, unbranded products, budget cars, etc. See also: Up-scale consumer
Early Adopters – See: Life Cycle
Emotional Motive – A non-rational motive of a consumer or buyer. Many purchases are based on underlying feelings such as being able to relate to salesman, fear (insurance policies), status (expensive cars, clothing), guilt (campaign for charity) etc. Emotional motives are often exposed by in-depth interviews. See also: Rational Motive
End Consumer – Syn: Final consumer/Ultimate consumer See: Consumerism
Explorative forecasting – Prediction future trends on the basis of the assumption that the future is a logical extension, holding no surprises, of (elements of) the present time.
Export Marketing – A branch of marketing that concentrates on the effective export of goods and services – for example, attempting to increase the number of American cars sold in Japan or finding out what possibilities exist for English computer manufacturers to sell their goods in the Commonwealth. See also: Marketing
Family Purchasing Agent – The member of the family who, whether of his or her own choice or t, is responsible for purchasing certain articles – for example, father buys the family car and sees to its upkeep, buys liquor, etc.; mother buys the food and other day-to-day products.
Final Consumer – Syn: End Consumer/Ultimate Consumer See: Consumer
Forecast – Syn: Prognosis Estimate of a possible or probable development in a particular region, for a particular case, usually over a particular region, for a particular case, usually over a particular length of time, etc. generally based on experience and past history – for example, the forecast of sales of video recorders in Italy for the next 5 years. See also: Extrapolation
Frequency Purchase – Syn: Buying Frequency The number of purchase made of a product group or brand by one person or a consumer group in a particular period. Can be presented in terms of product numbers or the times the product is purchased and also shown as a cross table.