Differential

Depth Interview – 1. A research interview in which the respondent is encouraged to speak freely an in full about a particular subject. The interview is conducted without the use of a structured questionnaire.   2. The demand for one product that is derived from the the purchase of another. The demand for industrial products is created by the purchase of consumer products that use or incorporate industrial products in them or in their manufacture. See: Focused Group Interview

Depth of Assortment – Refers to the number of variations available within a class or product line, for example, the number of different colors of canister sets or the number of different sizes of a model garment. See: Width of Assortment

Depth of Column – Same as: Depth of Space

Depth of Space – The dimension of advertising space measure from top to bottom, usually in reference to a column. It may be stated in Agate Lines, Picas, Column Inches. Same as: Depth of Column

Derived Demand – 1. A very significant characteristics of the market for Industrial goods which severely affects manufacturers of installations. Denotes a demand for one product which arises from the demand for another product. Explains that the industrial market fluctuates with the demand for final products. 2. The demand for one product that is derived from the purchase of another. the demand for industrial products is created by the purchase of consumer products that use or incorporate industrial products in them or in their manufacture.

Descriptive Approach – Same as: Institutional Approach

Descriptive Billing – The monthly bill is produced by a computer into which has been entered the detail of each purchase and credit. The customer’s statement shows the previous balance, the amount of each purchase, an identification of each purchase, total purchase and credits, service charges, amount currently due, the due date, and the minimum amount payable on the account.

Descriptive Labeling – 1. Labeling goods by characteristics, but without reference to recognize standard or grades. The use of descriptive information ( e.g., size, ingredients, or use) on labels. This contrasts with grade labeling, in which code letters or numbers are used to describe the relative quality goods. See: Label

Descriptive Model – Typically used as an aid to conceptualization. May be a prose model or a logical flow model. See: Model

Descriptive Research – 1. Sometimes used to mean essentially the same as hypothesis testing when the hypothesis relates to a state of the universe. 2. A research design in which the major emphasis is on determining the frequency with which something occurs or the extent to which two variables covary. See: Marketing Research

Descriptive Theory – That type of theory which explains the structure and functioning of institutions and the relationships among marketing variables. Marketing models have been developed of Consumer, Distributor, and competitive behavior, among others. Some firms have built computer models of their markets. Forms a base for Predictive Theory and Normative Theory.

Design – (1) The completely planned sequence of activities for a marketing research project. (2) A specific set of activities designed to validate answers or solutions to problems.

Designated Market Area (DMA) – The geographic area surrounding a city in which the broadcasting stations based in that city account for a greater share of the listening or viewing households than do broadcasting stations based in other nearby cities. It also is the specific geographic area to which a county in the United States is exclusively assigned on the basis of the television viewing habits of the people residing in the county.

Desire-Set – The entire bundle of benefits a prospective user of a product would like to derive from it at the same time because he perceives them as related. Most buyers must eventually compromise among all the elements comprising the desire-set, which is defined for any individual by the culture to which he belongs.
Desk Jobber – A merchant wholesaler operating out of an office or showroom who in the course of business rarely takes physical possession of the goods he sells. The customer is sent the goods directly from the producer who bills the desk jobber. The desk jobber in turn bills his customer.   Same as: Drop Shipper

Destination Merchandise – A type of merchandise that motives or triggers a trip to a specific store.

Destination Store – A store to which a consumer generally makes a special trip with the intent of shopping.

Detail Salesperson – The missionary salesperson employed by a pharmaceutical company to call on physicians and attempt to get them to prescribe their firm’s products.

Detailer – 1. Found mainly in the found of Industry, this manufacturer’s employee checks inventories and reports out-of-stock items to store managers, suggests and organizes shelf arrangements, stock shelves, recommends store displays and set ups them up where applicable, makes adjustments for damaged stock, presents new items, and builds goodwill. Currently a controversial figure in view of activities claimed to create inflationary pressures. 2. A decision calculus model providing a decision support system for allocating a salesforce’s selling effort across the items in a firm’s product line. The model’s parameters are calibrated using subjective responses to a series of questions concerning projected sales under various levels of detailing effort and over various time periods.  See: Detail Man

Detailing – 1. The activity of the detailer. The personal sampling and other promotional work among doctors, dentists, and other professional persons done for pharmaceutical concerns, in order to secure goodwill and possible distribution or prescription of the product. 2. The personal sampling and other promotional work among doctors, dentists, and other professional persons done for pharmacutical concerns, in order to secure goodwill and possible distribution or prescription of the product. See: Detail Man

Detail Man – A special kid of Missionary Salesman used in the drug business to call on doctors, dentists, pharmacists, and nurses; also drug wholesalers and retailers. He leaves professional samples and explains possible uses for new products.

Detention – A carrier charge incurred when trailers of motor carriers are retained beyond the specified loading or unloading time. The permitted time is specified in the tariff and normally is limited to a few hours.

Determining Dimensions – Same as: Determining Factors

Determining Factors – Those prospect characteristics which are specific to the buying decision. Useful in constructing a market grid and selecting the strategies that follow. See: Qualifying Factors

Deterministic Model – A model in which all the factors taken into account are assumed to be exact. Chance plays no role. See: Heuristic Model

Developmental Marketing – Those activities designed to deal with a market condition of Latent Demand.

Development Time – The time it takes to develop a new product, usually expressed in months. Development time is a function of several factors, such as product complexity, newness, clarity of customer requirements, effectiveness of new product development process, prototyping quality, highly effective development leadership, priority, and prior experience.

DEX/UCS – The standard for electronic exchange that utilizes a uniform communications system to allow suppliers who ship direct store delivery to communicate invoice data to retailers at their receiving facilities.

Dialect Process – An evolutionary theory based on the premise that retail institution evolve. The theory suggests that new retail formats emerge by adopting characteristics from other forms of retailers in much the same way that a child is the product of the pooled genes of two very different parents.

Dialog System – The part of a decision support system that permits users to explore the databases by employing the system models to produce reports that satisfy their particular information needs. It is also called a language system

Diary Method – In measuring the size of the audience for a Broadcast Medium., this method employs a notebook kept next to the set in which members of a family can record the stations and programs they attend. While there is always possibility of invalid entry, the advantages of this method are all that broadcast hours are covered, all members of the family are included, and additional information about the audience can be elicited. Tabulation is done by the research firm after the diaries have been returned to it on a regular schedule. Often used in another context to determine product brand preferences.
See: Mechanical Recorder Method, Telephone Coincidental Method, Personal Interview Method

DIBA – Abbreviation for: Domestic and International Business Administration, a part of the U.S. Department of Commerce. Besides a wide variety of statistical and advisory publications on domestic business, it analyzes and recommends Policy on U.S. Trade with Communist countries, and encourages and assists U.S. Firms to enter export, providing pertinent data on specific foreign countries.

Dichotomous Question – Dichotomous Question – A fixed-alternative question in which respondents are asked to indicate which of two alternative responses most closely corresponds to their position on a subject. See: Fixed- Alternative Questionnaire

Differential – (1) Same as: Differential Advantage (2) In commodity trading, the premiums paid for the grades better than the basic grade, and the discounts allowed for grades lower than the basic grade, according to the rules and definitions of the Commodity Exchange on which the trades are executed.

Differential Advantage – 1. An element in the reputation or resources of a firm, or some particular aspects of a product, that can emphasized to create a special value in the minds of prospects. 2. (product development definition) A property of any product that is able to claim uniqueness over other products in its category. To be a differential advantage, the uniqueness must be a communicable to customers and have value for them. The differential advantage of a firm is often called its distinctive competences.  3. ( economic definition) An advantage unique to an organization; an advantage extremely difficult to match by a competitor.

Differentiated Oligopoly – An oligopoly that produces and markets products that consumers consider close, but less than perfect, substitutes -e.g., automobiles.

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