Differential Threshold – The smallest difference that an individual can detect between stimuli. Also called the: just noticeable difference or j.n.d. See: Absolute Threshold, Weber’s Law
Differentiated Marketing – The developing of a unique marketing mix for each target market on which the firm has fixed.
Diffusion Index – An indicator which permits comparison of the proportion of business indicators that predicts a rise or a decline of economic activity at a given time with those of previous times in the hope of being able to establish a valid trend.
Diffusion Model – A model representing the contagion or spread of something through a population. Diffusion models in marketing often are applied to the adoption of a new product, or the exposure of potential customers to some information about a product (e.g., an advertising message). Numerous specific mathematical formulations have been applied to diffusion processes, and these are reviewed by Lilien and Kotler (a983 Chapter 19) and Majahan and Wind (1986). The most widely cited of these models was introduced to marketing by Bass (1969). It incorporates explicitly an innovation effect and an imitation effect. When both effects are present, the time path of adoption follows an S-shaped curve.
Diffusion of Innovation – The process by which the use of innovation is spread within a market group, overtime and over various categories of adopters.
Diffusion Process – 1.The way a new idea reflected in real product or services, or abstract, spreads from its source of origin to its ultimate users or adopters. 2. The process by which new ideas and products become accepted by society. See: Adoption Process
Diffusion Rate – The speed with which the diffusion process progresses.
See: Characteristics of Innovations
Digit – In ADP, a sign or symbol used to convey a specific piece of data.
Digital Data – In ADP, data in the form of a code consisting of a sequence to discrete elements, e.g., characters representing discrete pieces of information. See: Analog Data
Diminishing Marginal Utility –A situation in which a marginal utility, i.e., the extra utility added by consumption of a last unit, tends to decrease. See: Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility
Diminishing Return –A situation in which after a point the extra output resulting from an increase in some input(s) relative to other fixed inputs tends to become less and less. See: Law of Diminishing Returns
Diminishing Utility – A situation in which consumption of successive new units of a good causes total utility to grow an increasingly slower rate, i.e., psychological factors cause a consumer to have a lesser appreciation to the later unit.
Diorama – A three-dimensional, elaborate display in color, usually scenic and illuminated. Frequently employs motion to emphasize some of its elements.
Direct- Action Advertising – Advertising the goal of which is to get the audience to act right away. This may be mail-order asking for money for the product,or advertising leads in which prospects are encouraged to write for information. Some type of affirmative action is called for. See: Indirect-Action Advertising
Direct Advertising – 1. Any form of advertising issued directly by the advertiser to specific prospects. 2. A mass or quantity promotion, not in an advertising medium, but issued from the advertiser by mail or personal distribution to individual customers or prospects. Also, it is the advertising literature appearing in folders, leaflets, throw-aways, letters, and delivered to prospective customers by mail,salespeople, dealers, or tucked into mailboxes.
Direct Buying – The process of purchasing directly from the producer. Middlemen of all types are not part of the process. See: Direct Channel
Direct Channel – 1. A channel of distribution characterized by the absence of middlemen. The maker sells directly to the user. 2. A channel whereby goods and services are sold directly from producer to final user without involvement of other independent middlemen.See: Indirect Channel, Semi-Direct Channel
Direct Costing – A way of applying cost to products so that only the VARIABLE COST association with a product are allocated to that product, while the FIX COST are charged off as expenses applied to the period in which they are incurred and are not reflected in inventory valuation See: DIRECT COST
Direct Cost -Those cost which can be clearly traced and changes to a product See: INDIRECT COSTS
Direct Denial – A method for answering prospect objects by making strong statements indicating that the prospect has made an error.
Direct Denial Technique – A salesmanship technique used in dealing with objections. Involves the salesperson’s contradiction of a statement the prospect has made. Although dangerous in that it may lead to argument, it is indicated where the prospect’s statement maligns the integrity of the seller, or shows an erroneous understanding of the seller’s policies.
Also called: Denying Method More
(1) Direct Denial or Contradiction Method:
As the name implies, this method consists in telling the customer directly that he is wrong. Generally this is not a tactful one and should be avoided because it is likely to offend most prospect and particularly those who are extremely sensitive and fond of their own opinion.
Only a broadminded prospect may admire the salesman’s courage. This method is only successful when used by skilled salesman. In some cases however it is quite appropriate.
For example, if the customer asks a direct question as to whether the material shown is likely to fade, it can be denied directly by stating that the material would not fade and that it has been proved by tests that the colour is a fast one.
Direct denial that is based on facts, logic and politeness can be effective at overcoming the objections.
This method should be applied where (i) objections raised are false (ii) Objections arising out of dishonestly or ignorance of the prospect (iii) the customer is frank and broad minded.
(2) Indirect Denial Method :
This method is the one most widely used by salesmen because it is the least likely to give offence to the prospect. It suits more situations and more types of prospect than any of the other methods, as people generally do not like to be contradicted. Just like the boxer who rolls with the opponent’s blow to lessen its impact the salesman must give ground slightly before delivering his denial or contradiction.
In this method, the salesman agrees with the prospect only to differ subsequently looking at the position from a different angle. This method is also sometimes described as the “Yes, but” method.
For example, the salesman may say “I agree with you Mr. Prospect. What you say is true under many conditions but in this case…” This method therefore really amounts to denying tactfully without giving offence.
As it is milder in reaction, it is known as “Yes, but” method. It is also called as” you are right … but’ method, There is no contradiction or denial; It is the art of saying the bitter truth in the pleasant way.
Direct Distribution – Selling by a manufacturer to Industrial users through his own salespersons, sales branches or offices, and/or warehouses. Sometimes used to apply to the consumer level.
See: Direct Channel, Indirect Distribution
Directed-Response Question – See: Free Response Questionnaire
Direct Expenses – Business expenses that can readily be assigned to units of firm that are constituted as expense centers.
Direct Exporting – The type of exporting in which firms enter foreign markets directly and do their own export marketing. The firm itself undertakes the complete export marketing task, which is extensive. Direct exporting includes choosing appropriate foreign markets, selecting agents or distributors to represent the firm in those markets, motivating and controlling those distributors choosing the product line for target markets, setting prices and determining promotional strategies for those markets, handling international shipping and finance, and preparing export documentation.
Direct Impression Composition – Same as: Impact Composition
Direct Mail Advertising – That advertising which asks fr the order to be sent by mail. Delivery of the order is by mail. Also the medium which delivers the advertising message by mail. Provides greatest control of direction to a market, flexibility of materials and processes, timeliness of scheduling, and personalization. Its biggest problems is getting the recipient’s attention. A part of direct advertising.
See: Mail Order
Direct Marketing – (1) Essentially the same in effect as retail mail-order, it is broader in scope in that the advertising message may be delivered by a variety of media rather than through the mail or a subordinate section of a local advertisement,. (2) More recently becoming applied to the activity of selling to consumers or Industrial users without the use of middlemen. See: Direct Channel
Direct Product Profitability (DPP) – 1. (physical distribution definition) The managerial accounting practice of allocating costs to specific products. It is a method of evaluating distribution alternatives such as direct store delivery. It is also used to allocate shelf space in retail stores based on profitability. 2. (retailing definition) The profit on sale of a product after deducting the cost of the goods and only the expenses directly related to that particular product or product line.
Direct Request Method – A method for obtaining commitment from a customer by simply asking for the purchase order.
Directories of Vendors – Among the many available, perhaps the best known and must used in the industrial field are Conover- Mast Purchasing Directory, Macrae’s Blue Book, Thomas’ Register of American Manufacturers, and Yellow pages. Specialized list are available from many trade associations.
Direct Premium – An item given free with a purchase at the time of the purchase. The simplest type of premium-giving.
Direct Promise Headline – A headline which makes a clear promise to the reader of a benefit to be had from the product’s use.