Direct Response Advertising – 1.Essentially the same as Direct Mail Advertising except that the message may be delivered by any medium such as television or radio as well as the postal system. 2. An approach to the advertising message that includes a method of response such as an address or telephone number whereby members of the audience can respond directly to the advertiser in order to purchase a product or service offered in the advertising message. Direct response advertising can be conveyed to members of a target market by wide variety of advertising media, including television, radio, magazines, mail delivery, etc.
Direct Retailing – The sale of merchandise to consumers without interviewing middlemen.
Direct Selling – 1. (sales definition) A marketing approach that involves direct sales of goods and services to consumers through personal explanation and demonstrations, frequently in their home or place of work. 2.(retailing definition) The process whereby the firm responsible for production sells to the user, ultimate consumer, or retailer without intervening middlemen. Same as: Direct Marketing
Direct Selling Establishment – An establishment primarily engaged in the retail sale of merchandise by telephone or house-to-house canvass or in the workplace.
Direct Selling House – A firm in the specialty advertising field that created its own and sells them directly to advertisers through its own sales force. See: advertising Novelties, Specialty Distributor
Direct Selling Organization – A nonstore retailing establishment that solicits orders and distributes its products direct to consumers.
Direct Store Delivery (DSD) – 1. (physical distribution definition) A system whereby goods are delivered to the buyer’s store instead of going through a warehouse or distribution center. This can result in less handling and faster deliviries, but does not necessarily result in lower costs. 2. (retailing definition) Delivery by vendor directly to a retail store of a customer,as opposed to delivery to a distribution center operated by the customer.
Directional and Departmental Signage – A signage system that helps guide the shopper through the shopping trip and locate specific departments of interest.
Disconfirmation – In consumer satisfaction theory, disconfirmation refers to a situation in which a product performs differently than expected prior to purchase. Positive disconfirmation occurs when the product performs better than expected; negative disconfirmation occurs when the product performs worse than expected.
Discontinuous Innovation – One of a four way classification of new products as to degrees of newness, this type involves the creation of previously unknown products and the establishment of new usage patterns based on an idea or behavior patters that did not exist before. The other three are: Congruent, Continuous, Dynamically Continuous
Discount – A reduction from a price which may be stated, usual, or expected.
See: Anticipation Discount, Bulk Discount, Cash Discount, Cumulative Discount, Frequency Discount
Discount House – A retail establishment characterized mainly by its sale of a large selection of well-known brands of merchandise at less than list prices. The distinction between the discount house and the department store is becoming obscure as each adopts concepts from other.
Discount Loading – An internal bookkeeping computation in retailing which places all inventory and purchase figures on a comparable basis by recalculating all invoice prices to reflect an assumed desirable cash discount percent. If a buyer is unable to obtain that size discount from a supplier, the merchandise is costed in as though he had been successful. The resultant higher cost base figure usually results in setting higher retail prices on the merchandise.
Discount Store – Generally, a large retail store open to the public that incorporates aspects of supermarket merchandising strategy to a high degree, attempts to price merchandise at a relatively low markup, carries stock, and renders only limited types of consumer services, usually on the basis of a specific extra charge. It can be distinguished from regular retailers only by its consistent emphasis upon discount prices and its self-designation as a discount store. Much of the distinctive character has disappeared with the development of other forms of mass market retailing.
Discrepancy of Assortment – The difference between the extent of choice among items that are relatively interchangeable expected by a buyer wishes to buy at one time from the seller.
See: Breaking Bulk, Discrepancy of Assortment, Discrepancy of Variety
Discrepancy of Variety – The difference between the number of distinct types of items that a buyer would like a given source to have available and the number actually available.
See: Discrepancy of Assortment, Discrepancy of Quantity
Discrete Data – These are gathered whenever the elements of a population or sample are counted. They can be only whole numbers. See: Continuous Data
Discrete-Lot-Sizing – An inventory management technique to help determine order quantities. The procurement objectives is to obtain a quantity of components that equals the net requirement needed at a specific time. Purchase quantities will vary from order to order because of fluctuations in component requirements.
Discretionary Buying Power – The money in hands of consumers after the payment of taxes and the purchase of necessities; popularly called hot money or loose money. Same as: Discretionary Income
Discretionary Costs – Those costs not dependent on the level of output, but vary directly with the quality of the service and are above a certain minimum to keep the establishment open to zero output
Examples: Utilities Maintenance,advertising, accounting service. See: Fixed Costs, Variable Cost
Discretionary Income – That part of a consumer’s income which he has the choice of spending or saving. Usually considered to be that portion above an amount required for essentials. Same as: Discretionary Purchasing Power, Discretionary Spending Power
Discriminant Analysis – This provides a method of treating data which is on qualitative scales whereby groups maybe separated or segmented on the basis of attributes of group members. Any number of independent variables may be tested for effect on the dependent variables. It is possible, also to find the contribution of the independent variables, relative to each other, to the total difference between the scores of the two groups. Non Parametric
Discriminant Consequences – The consequences that differ across a set of alternatives that may be used as choice criteria.
Discriminant Validity – A criterion imposed on measure of a construct requiring that it not correlate too highly with measures from which it is supposed to differ.
Discriminative Stimulus – A stimulus by its mere presence or absence changes probability of behavior. For example, a 50 percent off sign in a store window could be a discriminative stimulus.
Diseconomies of Scale – Disadvantage that may be inherent in company size considered too large for the industry. These include poor public image, increased government regulation, and inefficiency produced by cumbersome organization. See: Economies of Scale
Disjunctive Rule – As compared with the conjunctive rule or lexicographic rule, the disjunctive heuristic (or rule of thumb) assumes that the consumer develops acceptable standards for each dimensions (which may be higher than the minimum cutoff levels for conjunctive heuristic). According to Bettman, if a product, brand, or alternative passes that standard for any attribute, it is accepted. The evaluation process yields groups of acceptable and unacceptable alternatives and hence the evaluation is derived rather than direct.
Dispatch – A department found in large newspapers, although its functions must be performed on any size newspaper, which schedules advertising; processes advertisements; distributes material to the appropriate mechanical departments, e.g., copy and layout to the composing room; handles proofs for advertiser correction; delivers tear sheets.
Dispenser – (1) A sign or display containing a pocket for literature, or accommodating a tear-off pad.
See” Take-ones (2) A merchandise display containing a stock of items arranged for immediate sale.
Dispersion – (1) The process of moving produce from areas of high supply concentration to centers of distribution closer to the consumer. (2) In statistics, the amount of variability represented in the measurements in the array. See: Measures of Dispersion
Displacement – Describes the forgetting by the audience of one advertising theme caused by new themes introduced by the same advertiser.
Display -The POPAI describes a display as “a device or accumulation of devices which in addition to identifying and/or advertising a company and/or a product, may also merchandise, either by actually offering the product for sale or by indicating its proximity. A display characteristically bears an intimate relationship with the product, whereas a “sign” is more closely related to the name of the manufacturer, the retailer or the product.
Display Advertising – (1) Usually associated with newspapers,this is the advertising which appears in areas other than in classified section, which have little or no restrictions on layout or type face.
See: Classified Advertising, Classified Display Advertising (2) Advertising pieces designed to be self-supporting, such as a window display, or to be mounted on a wall or background.
Display Carton – A merchandise carton designed to fold out into a pop display without removing the merchandise