Gap Analysis

Galley Proof – A copy of the individual pages of an ad, brochure, poster, or other printed material used for final proofreading of the text before final negatives are made for the printing process.

Game – A consumer sales promotion technique that involves collection, matching, or use of skill to complete a project or activity with the goal of a prize or reward for the player.

Game Theoretic Models – Models that use game theory to predict the actions of either cooperative or competitive individuals (or firms). In cooperative game theory, the agreements that emerge from colluding individuals are examined. Noncooperative game theory is concerned with the actions of rational, intelligent individuals competing independently. A key element of this theory is the Nast Equilibrium, i.e., a set of strategies, one for each individual, such that no individual would then unilaterally like to change the strategy. Typically the individuals are assumed to adopt strategies in accordance with this equilibrium (assuming that such an equilibrium exists).

Gap Analysis – The difference in performance between the “momentum” strategy, which requires no shift in resource priorities or direction, and a strategy based on preliminary objectives identified in the adaptive planning process. This gap can be narrowed by either altering objectives in light of what can be achieved or by adopting a strategy with different objectives.

Garbology – The study of consumer behavior and preferences for foods and products by examining disposed goods and other items found in the trash and garbage.

Garment District – The leading apparel and textile center in the country located in New York City along or near Seventh Avenue in the 34th street vicinity.

Gate Keeper – Usually, the individual who controls the flow of the information from the mass media to the group or individual. it is also used to indicate the individual who controls decision making by controlling the purchase process. In a traditional family, the mother often function as the gatekeeper between the child and his/her exposure to the mass media and the purchase of toys or products. In an organization, the purchasing agent is often the gatekeeper between the end user and the vendor of products or services.

General Advertising – Advertising messages that do not contain direct response offers.

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) – An institutional framework that provides a set of rules and principles committed to the liberalization of trade between countries.

General Merchandise Store – An establishment primarily selling household linens and dry goods, and either apparel and accessories or furniture and home furnishings. Establishments that meet the criteria for department stores, except as to employment, are included in this classification. Included for Census purposes are establishments whose sales of apparel or of furniture and home furnishings exceed half of their total sales, if sales of the smaller of the two lines in combination with dry goods and household linens accounts for 20 percent of total sales.

General Merchandise Wholesaler – A wholesaler that carries a variety of goods in several distinct and unrelated merchandise lines.

General Sales Manager – This manager has overall responsibility for corporate, group, or division sales. Sales Management at this level is concerned with developing sales policies, strategies, and plans that support the overall marketing plan. In a small company, the general sales manager may supervise all salespeople directly. As the number of salespeople increases, however, supervision of salespeople must be delegated to field sales managers. In a functionally organized company, the general sales manager reports to the marketing manager or the chief executive. In a divisionalized corporation, the general sales manager reports to the division manager. In a divisionalized company with a centralized sales organization, the general sales manager reports to the chief executive or a group executive.

General Store – An establishment primarily selling a general line of merchandise, the most important being food. The more important subsidiary lines are notions, apparel, farm supplies, and gasoline. Sales of food account for at least one-third and not more than two-thirds of total sales. This establishment is usually located in rural communities.

General Line Wholesaler – A wholesaler who carries a complete stock of one type of merchandise, corresponding roughly to a substantial majority of the total merchandise requirements of customers in a major line of trade or industry classification.

Generic Advertising – An approach to prepare advertising messages that concentrates on the customer benefits that apply to all brands in a product category, as opposed to benefits that are unique to specific brands.

Generic Brand – A product that is named only by its generic class (e.g., drip-grind coffee, barber shop). other products have both an individual brand and a generic classification(Maxwell House drip-grind coffee, Maurice’s barber shop). Generic brand products are often thought to be unbranded, but their producer or reseller name is usually associated with the product, too. This approach is usually associated with food and other packaged goods, but many other consumer and industrial products and services are marked as generics.

Generic Strategies – Generalized plans that work across a range of industries and markets. They provide management with a set of strategic options, one (or a combination) of which can be chosen for application in a specific situation. Generic strategies do not provide specifics and the detail needed to be developed for any specific situation.

Geocentric Orientation – A management orientation based upon the assumption that there are similarities and differences in the world that can be understood and recognized in an integrated world strategy. The geocentric orientation or world orientation is a synthesis of the ethnocentric orientation (home country).

Geodemography -An availability of demographic consumer behavior and lifestyle data by arbitrary geographic boundaries that are typically quite small.

Geographic Organization – A company organized into geographical units that are report to a central corporate headquarters. Normally each unit produces the same or similar products as the others, and the unit manager controls both the manufacturing and sales operation. Marketing functions other than sales are usually centralized at the corporate level. Comment: Reasons for geographic organization include high shipping costs or the need for quick delivery for reasons of freshness (e.g., baked goods), both of which require that plants be located near customers.

GEOLINE – A model providing a decision support system for creating service and sales territory boundaries. The approach aggregates small standard geographic units (SGUs) into sales territories while maximizing the compactness of the territories (i.e., the ease of covering the territory from the standpoint of travel), subject to the constraint that each created territory have the same overall sales activity level (or some other criterion.

Georeference Classification – For analysis purposes, the data covering such things as sales, customers, product and demographics are often classified on a geographical basis. Distribution of such data by individual markets provides the geographical structure of demand that must be serviced. The most useful geographical classification structures for logistical modeling are customer point locations, country, standard metropolitan statistical area, economic trading area, Zip code and grid structure.

Gift – An item of value that is offered by the seller as an inducement to influence the consideration or purchase of a product or service.

Global Advertising – The use of advertising appeals, messages, art, copy, photographs, stories, and video and film segments on a global scale.

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