Nonobservation Error – A nonsampling error that arises because of nonresponse from some elements designated for inclusion in the sample.
Nonprice Competition – The act of vying for sales through better products, promotion, service, and convenience with only minor emphasis on price.
Nonprobability Sample – A sample that relies on personal judgment somewhere in the element selection process and therefore prohibits estimating the probability that any population element will be included in sample.
Nonprofit Marketer – An individual or organization conducting nonprofit marketing.
Nonprofit Marketing – The marketing of a product or service in which the offer itself is no intended to make a monetary profit for the marketer. Comment: Non profit marketing may be carried out by any organization or individual and may or may not be designed to have a positive social impact. A nonprofit marketer may undertake specific ventures that are for-profit, as when a museum market reproductions or offers food and beverages at a profit; however, its overall objective does not involve making profit. A nonprofit marketer may be incorporated privately or may be governmental (public) agency.
Nonresponse Error – A nonsampling error that represents a failure to obtain information from some elements of the population that were selected and designated for the sample.
Nonsampling Error – An error that arises in research that is not due to sampling, nonsampling error can occur because of errors in conception, logic, misinterpretation of replies, statistics, arithmetic, and errors in tabulating or coding, or in reporting the results.
Nonselling Area – The floor space, other than selling area, used in the conduct of business in a store building or in remote service or warehouse buildings, including entrances, show windows, vertical transportation facilities, offices, air conditioning systems, alteration rooms, workrooms, repair shops, receiving and marking rooms, and stockrooms.
Nonselling Department – Any department of a store engaged in work other than direct selling of merchandise – e.g., receiving department.
Nonstore Retailing – A form of retailing in which consumer contact occurs outside the confines of the retail store, such as vending machines and electronic shopping, at home personal selling, and catalog buying.
Nonverbal Communication – The nonspoken forms of expression communicating thought and emotions including body language, space between the communicators, speech, and appearance.
Norms – The rules of behavior that are part of the ideology of the group. Norms tend to reflect the values of the group and specify those actions that are proper and those that are inappropriate, as well as the rewards for the adherence and the punishment for noncomformity.
Not-at-home – A source of non sampling error that arises when replies are not secured from some designated sampling units because the respondents are not at home when the interviewer calls.
Objection – A concern or questions raised by a prospect to a salesperson.
Objective – The desired or needed result to be achieved by a specific time. An objective is broader than a goal, and one objective can be broken down into a number of specific goals. Like goals, objectives serve to provide guidance, motivation, evaluation, and control.
Objective-and-Task Budgeting – An advertising budget method in which advertising expenditures are determined on the basis of a specific audit of the resources needed to achieve the specific objectives and tasks outlined n the advertiser’s media plan.
Observation – A method of data collection in which the situation of interest is watched and the relevant acts, actions, or behaviors recorded.
Observation Error – A nonsampling error that arises because inaccurate information is secured from the sample elements or because errors are introduced in the processing of the data or in reporting the findings.
Obsolescence – The act or process of a product’s becoming out-of-date, discarded, no longer in use. The rejection is for some reason other than being worn out or inoperable. It may apply to an individual item or to all of the items in a given class or group. The active verb form, less widely acceptable, is to obsolete or to make obsolete.
Odd Lot – Dealing with broken lots or unbalanced assortments reduced in price for quick turnover.
Odd Price – A price ending in an odd number (such as 57 cents or 63 cents), or a price just under some round number (such as $98 instead of $100).
Odd-even Pricing – A form of psychological pricing that suggests buyers are more sensitive to certain ending digits. Odd price refers to a price ending in an odd number (e.g., 1,3,5,7,9), or to a price just under a round number (e.g., $0.89, $3.99, $44.98). Even price refers to a price ending in a whole number or in tenths (e.g.,$0.50, $5.00, $8.10, $75.00).
Off-Invoice Allowance – A type of trade sales promotion in which the manufacturer offers the retailer a price reduction on the product price at the time of billing, generally for a limited period of time.
Off-Price Shopping Center – A shopping center specializing in off-price retail tenants such as T.J. Maxx or Burlington Coat Factory.
Off-Retail Percentage – The markdown as a percentage of the original price. For example, an item originally retails for $10 and is marked down to $5; the off retail percentage is 50%.
Offer – The terms and conditions (price, quantity, delivery date, shipping costs, guarantee. etc.) under which a product or service is presented for sale to potential customers in direct response advertising.
Office Error – A nonsampling error that arises in the processing of data because of errors in editing, coding, tabulation, or in some other part of the analysis.
Oligopolistic Competition – A market condition in which only a few large sellers vie and collectively account for a relatively large market share.
Oligopolistic Environment – A market situation in which only a few large firms compete in either buying or selling in the market.