Self-destroying Prophecy – Syn: Self-Deceiving Prophecy
A prognosis or forecast that, because of its having been made, destroy itself. The forecast, based upon correct facts, may be valid, but the actions of interested parties may cause it not to come about. For instance, statistics may show that a shortage of engineers will occur within a few ears. These conclusions are published in the press, and so many students apply for training in engineering that the forecast of a shortage is rendered incorrect. See also: Self-fulfilling Prophecy
Self-fulfilling Prophecy – A prognosis or forecast that, because having been made, comes true. For example, an expert in education forecasts that the number of university students will decline. Because the expert says so, many would be university students conclude that there is a valid reason for such a prediction and pursue vocational training instead. The prophecy thus comes true.
Social Mobility – The movement from one social position to another, for instance, the movement from a lower social class to a higher one (from a baker to director of a large baking enterprise). Modern society offers many opportunities from climbing of the social ladder. See also: Position
Socialization – The process whereby people learn the norms, values and habits of a particular culture, take them over and make them their own, for example, one takes a driving test as soon as one is 16 or 18 years old. See also: Norm/Culture
Social Status – Syn: Status See: Status
Social Stratification – Syn : Stratification See: Stratification
Society – A collection of individuals that is self-supporting, can reproduce itself and has a longer life than that of any of its members. Society includes people, culture, norms and values. A tribe of 25 families can just as easily be a society as the present-day United States of America.
Socio- Economic Characteristics – Syn: Socio- economic Criteria
Qualities possessed by people that determine the social group to which they belong. They may include education, profession, income, standard of living and also certain kinds of ownership, such as owning a house, car, certain durable consumer goods, etc. See also: Socio-Economic Status
Socio-economic Criteria – Syn: Socio-economic characteristic See: Socio-economic characteristic
Socio-Economic Status – Often abbreviated to S.E.S.: the status that someone enjoys as a result of certain social and economic characteristics, for example, his or her housing (affluent section of town), education, employment, wealth, etc. See also: Socio-economic characteristics/Status
Sociology – One of the behavioral sciences. Subjects studied within sociology include social structures, groups, developments in society, norms, status, roles and positions.
See also: Social psychology/Behavioral sciences
Special Norm – See: Norm
Status – Syn: Social Status
The relative position or rank within a social group that someone enjoys or is given by others. Status is present in every social network- office, street, club, apartment building. See also: Status/Prestige
Status Symbol – An object or quality that is given a (high) social value by the owner and/or others. This object serves to raise the social status of the owner. Status symbols vary from group to group, place to place and time to time: a shiny sports car is a status symbol to a group of young men but not to their parents, for whom a second home would more likely qualify. See also: Status
Stereotype – A concept or opinion held by a social group about a category of other people that is not based on facts or personal experience. For example: “ Italians are lazy,” “Germans are industrious,” “New Yorkers are rude,” “the French never deliver anything on time.”
Stratification – Syn: Social Stratification
1. Sociology: The structure of classes within groups – For example, social classes: doctors belong to a higher social class than bakers or policemen.
2. Sampling : The categorization of a population in “layers” known as strata. If sample is to be made, then it may be accomplished by selecting targets from each stratum. The stratification process can involve a geographical basis: the sample area is split into sub-areas on the map; or by characteristic of the population: city residents by sex, or by low, medium and high incomes, etc. See also: Social class
Stratum (Pl: Strata) Syn: Layer
A group within a society, such as A-class, doctors, etc. See also: Stratification/ Social class
Subculture – A part of a principal culture. A subculture has a number of its own value and norms that are usually not present in the principal culture;however, the most pervasive of its values and norms are those of the principal culture. See also: Norm/Culture
Subgroup – Part of a group possessing particular characteristics that are not present in the larger group. See also: Group
Universal Norm – See: Norm