Acquisition Value – The buyer’s perceptions of the relative worth of a product or service to them. It is formally defined as the subjectively weighted difference between the most a buyer would be willing to pay for the item less the actual price of the item.
Across the Board – A designation for a broadcast program scheduled for the same time period on consecutive days of the week, usually Monday through Friday
Action Planning – Planning activity directed especially toward organizational goals through emphasizing the improvement of internal communication, cooperation and motivation. See: Strategic Planning
Activation – The essentially automatic process by which knowledge and meaning are retrieve from memory and made available for use of cognitive processes.
Active Listening – A method of listening that attempts to draw out as much information as much as possible by actively processing information received and stimulating the communication of additional information.
AIO Activities, Interests, and Opinions – A measurable series of psychographic variables involving the interests and beliefs of consumers.
Activity Based Costing – A cost accounting system that ties actual costs to the direct performance and value of activities. Costs are not allocated based on the formula, but are traced and charged to specific activities.
Activity Goal, Sales – The behavioral objectives for salespeople, such as the number of calls made or number of displays set up in a day.
Activity Quota – A quota that focuses on the activities in which sales representatives are supposed to engage. Activity quotas focus on a salesperson’s efforts rather than the sales volume outcomes of these activities. Examples of activity quotas include number of letters to potential accounts, number of product demonstration, number of calls on new accounts, and number of submitted proposals.
Actual – Commodities available in the spot market, on hand and ready for shipment, storage, or manufacture. See: Spot Deal
Actual Self Concept – Same as: Self Concept
Actual Time – In ADP, refers to specific time in which the process or event is taking place on which the computing system is to have a resulting influence.
Ad – The name used to indicate an advertising message in the print media.
Ad Valorem Duty – A duty or tax that is levied as a percentage of the value of imported goods. It is also known as tariff.
Adaptation – The process by which one becomes so accustomed to a stimulus that one’s reaction to it is dulled. See: Absolute Threshold
Adaptation Pricing Policy – A pricing for the rest of the world of adapting home country prices to local competitive and market circumstances. It also is known as polycentric pricing policy.
Adaptive Control Budgeting –An advertising budget method whereby the advertiser uses test markets to examine the sales level and profitability of advertising spending levels that are higher and lower than the spending level currently being used by the advertiser. The advertiser may decide to adapt either a higher or lower spending level depending on the test market results.
Adaptive Experimentation – An approach (and philosophy) for management decisions, calling for continuous experimentation to establish empirically the market response functions. Most common in direct marketing, it can and has been applied to advertising and other marketing mix variables. The experiment should reflect the needed variation in stimuli, cost of measuring the results, lost opportunity costs in the non-optimal cells, and management confidence in the base strategy.
Adaptive Planning -An iterative process framework for organizing myriad information flows, analysis, issues, and opinions that coalesce into strategic decisions. there are four stages to this process (1) situation assessment – the analysis of internal and environmental factors that influence business performance, combined with a comparison of past performance relative to objectives and expectations, (2) strategic thinking -identification of key issues that have a major impact on performance and the generation of creative strategic options for dealing with each issue, (3)decision making -selection of strategic thrust, choices of options, and allocation of resources in light of mutually acceptable objectives, and (4) implementation- ongoing activities that translate strategic decisions into specific programs, projects, and near-term functional action plans. The process is iterative because the implementation phase will eventually be followed by a revised situation assessment.
Adaptive Product – A variant of another offering of the same firm, designed to broaden the the firm’s market share. Also called adapted product, this market entry acquires its uniqueness by variation on another, more pioneering product. The degree of adaptation is more than trivial (to avoid being an emulative product or “metoo” product) but it varies greatly in signeificance. See: Emulative Product, Multiple Brand Entries
Added Gravy – The sales which result from items needed to provide satisfaction from another item, such as the sheets and other bedding required to outfit a king-sized mattress. Also, the result of Added Selling
Added Selling – The attempt to sell additional products and/or services to a customer who has just made a purchase. A valid aspect of salesmanship.
Additional Markups – In the retail accounting method, increases that raise the prices of merchandise above original retail. See: Markup Cancellations
Add-ons – In retailing, the additional purchases added to the account of a charge account customer before the previous balance in the account has been fully paid. See: Revolving Account
Add-on Selling – Same as: Added Selling
Address – (1) In APD, a name, a number, or other symbol which identifies a location, register, or device where information is stored. (2) The portion of an instruction which determines the operation. (3) To place a datum in the memory or to recall a datum from the memory. See: Absolute Address, Arithmetic Address, Effective Address, Immediate Address
Ad Insert – Same as: Insert