Atmosphere – The physical characteristics of the store such as architecture, layout, signs and displays, color, lighting, temperature, noise, and smells creating an image in the customer’s mind.
Atmospheric – The store architecture, layout lighting, color scheme, temperature, access, noise, assortment, prices, special events, etc., that serve as a stimuli and attention attractors of consumers to a retail store.
Attention – The process by which a consumer selects information in the environment to interpret. Also, it is the point at which a consumer becomes aware or conscious of particular stimuli in the environment.
At-the-Market Prices – In the retail field, those prices which are generally the same for all stores in an area. See: Market-Minus Prices, Market-Plus Prices, Price Leadership
Attitude – Most commonly thought of as disposition to act. Social psychologists consider it a variable by which differences in response among individuals may be explained. In his attempts at persuasion, a marketer may try to confirm or to change existing attitudes, or to create new attitudes. Changing and creating consumer’s attitudes are difficult and complex activities. See: Belief, Opinion
Attraction Model – A market share model that predicts a particular brand’s market share as the quotient of that brand’s ” attraction” divided by the sum of the “attraction’ level for all brands in the market. The attraction level for a brand is often in turn expressed as a function of customer characteristics, the marketing mix, and the competitive environment. Condition under which an attraction model can be expected to hold have been described by Bell, Keeney, and Little (1975)
Attribute – in statistics, the term used to describe the characteristics of an elementary unit. For example, an elementary unit maybe a salesperson, the characteristic maybe effectiveness, the attributes may be: under quota, just meeting quota or over quota.
Auction – A market in which goods are sold to the highest bidder. The auction usually is well publicized in advance or held at specific times well known in the trade. Exchange is effected in accordance with definite rules, with sales made to the highest bidder.
Auction Company – The functional middleman characterized by its importance in the marketing of leaf tobacco. Service to a principal is intermittent. May be perform the acts of sorting, grading , arranging, cataloging, displaying, and publicizing in preparation for the bidding process which it will conduct.
Audience – (1) Total number of people who may be exposed to an advertising message delivered by a medium or combination of media. See: Reach (2) See: Theory of Role Enactment
Audience Accumulation – The total number of different persons or households exposed to a media vehicle or to a particular advertising campaign during a specified period of time.
Audience Duplication – The number of the same listeners or viewers reached by two or more programs of the same sponsor. 2. The total number of persons or household exposed more than once to the same media vehicle or to a particular advertising campaign during a specific period of time.
Audience Flow – The gain or loss in audience from one program to another, or from a variety of other causes. See: Hold-Over Audience
Audience Profile – A demographic description of the people exposed to an advertising medium or vehicle.
Audience Rating – The percent of all listeners in the market that a particular radio station gets at a given time. See: Audience Share, Rating Point
Audience Turnover – The ratio between the cumulative audience and the average audience for a broadcast program.
Audimeter – A device patented by the A.C. Neilsen Company, attached to home receivers to record the periods of set operation and station tuning. Data from this service provides the information from which the Neilsen Radio Index is derived.2. A electronic monitoring device used to measure the time periods during which a television set is being used and the specific channel to which is tuned at each moment. See: Mechanical Recorder Method
Audio – (1) Frequencies which can be heard by a human ear, usually between 15 and 20,000 cycles per second. (2) the sound portion of television.
Audited Sales – The net figures for sales of a particular period. In the retail field these figures are usually computed daily, because close internal watch on sales rends is vital. 2. The reconciliation of daily cash and charge sales against the recorded total on the sales registers. this reconciliation is accomplished in a back office procedure at the end of the day.
Auditing (post and pre) – Transportation freight bills are checked to assure billing accuracy. Preauditing determines the proper rate and charges prior to payment of a freight bill. Postauditing makes the same determination after payment.
Auditing Department – a unit of organization in a firm structure which has the responsibility for verifying the propriety of financial transactions. i.e, correct calculation, proper authorization and recording, supervision of inventory taking, etc. In the retail field the auditing of sales and returns transactions usually made against a list of prescribed numbers. See: Completeness Test
Augmented Product – This is the view of a product that includes not only its core benefit and its physical being, but adds other sources of benefits such as service, warranty and image. The augmented aspects are added to the physical product by action of the seller, e.g., with company reputation or with service.
Authority – The power to act or to command the actions of others. While technically I is a delegated right, actually the right is conferred by the persons who are being told what to do. Authority carries with it a commensurate responsibility.
Authorization – A process by whi credit sales are approved either through a telephone system from the selling floor to the credit office or by an automated system tied into a point-of-sale system.
Authorization Test – In ADP, a validation check performed to determine whether an initiating source is authorized to start that type of transaction. The check is usually made against a list of prescribed numbers. See: Completeness Test
Authorized Dealer – A retailer accepted by a manufacturer to be permitted to sell a particular item or group of items under a plan of exclusive distribution or selective contribution. This arrangement may be similar to franchising, and in fact such dealers are said to have a “franchise to sell the manufacturer’s products.”
Automated Guided Vehicle System (AGVS) – A material handling system that does not require driver. The AGVS is automatically routed and positioned at destination by an optical or magnetic guidance system.
Automated Storage and Retrieval Equipment (ASAR) – An automated unit load handling system using high-rise, structured steel vertical racks that improves materials-handling productivity, provides maximum storage density per square foot of floor space, and minimizes the direct labor required for handling.
Automated teller Machine (ATM) – A machine that allows use of special cards by consumers to make deposits, with draw cash, or transfer funds among accounts via electronic funds transfer.
Automatic Checkout Machine (ACM) – A system whereby customers have the opportunity to check themselves out of a store by scanning their purchases with the point-of-sale system, entering there customer identification card, and receiving clearance to exit the store.
Autism – A way of coping with frustration by fantasizing the gratification of one’s unfilled needs and wants. It is an imaginary attainment of goals. See: Aggression, Identification, Projection, Rationalization, Regression, Repression
Autocorrelation – The internal relationship among the elements of a stationary time series.
Automatic Basement – The downstairs or otherwise separated section of a retail store to which goods are relegated with decrease in price after the lapse of a specific time period, and in which the prices continue to be reduced at specified intervals until sold, or, after a certain period of time, given to a charitable purposes.
Automatic Data Processing – The accumulation, sorting, tabulating or otherwise processing data by using a system of electronic machines so constructed as to reduce to a minimum the requirement for human intervention. Although Electronic Data Processing System are technically one of the possible components of Automatic Data Processing Systems, which include assorted other electrical machines, the two terms are for practical purposes now generally used synonymously Same as: ADP
Automatic Group – A reference group in which an individual belongs because of sex, education, religion, race or etc. See: Anticipatory Group, Negative Reference Group, Participation Group
Automatic Markdown – A reduction in price taken by a retailer according to a predetermined time schedule. See: Automatic Basement
Automatic Reorder – An order for staple goods issued on a basis for reaching an established minimum inventory quantity. The reorder quantity is predetermined
Automatic Selling – The retail sale of goods or services through machines operated by the consumer using currency or some form of charge card or other authorization device. Including vending. A few attempts, some successful some not, have been made to establish completely automatic stores. Effort is being directed toward the popularization of automatic gasoline stations.
Automation System – A computer-monitored production or work cycle. Has the potential for greatly increasing productivity. Will have highly significant impact on purchasing activity within the firm because of its great capacity for handling and keeping track of the flow of details.
Automobile Information Disclosure Act – Requires manufacturers to put on new passenger cars of all types a tag showing the suggested retail price of the car, the price of each extra piece of equipment, and the cost of transport to the dealer.
Autonomous Investment – Investment motivated primarily y technological innovations in product and/or processes. See: Induced Investment
Auto-Train – A system of moving car passengers by rail, housed separately. Developed in the United States by Auto-Train, Inc. as an offshoot of a study made for the office of High Speed ground Transportation of the DOT.
Availability – (1) A time period in Broadcast Advertising offered to a Sponsor. (2) In outdoor Advertising, units such as showings or painted bulletins which a plant operator has open for contract.
Avails – Sometimes used in the advertising field as a short form for availabilities.