Brand Image

Bounce Back Offer – A coupon or other selling device included in a customer ordered product, premium, refund, or other package that attempts to sell more of the same or another product to the recipient.

Boundary Spanning – A concept describing job tasks or responsibilities beyond the traditional managerial area. Boundary spanning can be internal to the firm (extending beyond traditional organizational departments) or external to the firm 9crossing between channel members).

 Boutique – Actually, in French the word means “little shop,” but in American retailing, the term has come to mean a careful selected merchandise with unusual displays and fixtures, informal and attractive decor, and an atmosphere of individualized manner of the image created in the operation.

Box- Jenkins Method – A method for forecasting sales that relies on procedures for identifying models that best fit a set of time series data and statistical tests to examine the adequacy of the fitted models, where the models consist of a combination of autoregressive and moving average terms.

Boycott – A refusal to deal with, or cooperate with. a firm or nation to signal extreme  disapproval of its policies and actions. boycotts induce change, as, for example, when customers boycott a retail chain to gain redress for perceived inequities.

Bracket Creep – The movement of consumers to higher and higher income tax brackets during periods of inflation regardless of the lack of any real increase in income. This phenomenon is less serious since the 1986 tax reform, which greatly reduced the number of tax brackets.

Brain Storming – A group method of problem solving, used in product concept generation. It is sometimes thought to be an open, free wheeling ideas session, but more correctly is a specific procedure developed by Alex Osborn, with precise rules of session conduct. Now it has many modifications in format of use, each variation with its own name.

Branch House – An establishment maintained by a manufacturer, separate from the headquarters establishment and used primarily for the purpose of stocking, selling, delivering, and servicing the manufacturer’s product.

Branch House Wholesaler – A national, regional, or sectional wholesaler who operates a number of variously located establishments to provide better customer service in all parts of territory covered. It differs from a chain wholesaler in that each branch is closely supervised as an extension of the main wholesale house.

Branching Question – A technique used to direct respondents to different places in a questionnaire based on their response to the question at hand.

Brand – A name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one’s seller’s good or service as distinct from those of other sellers. The legal term for brand is trademark.  A brand may identify one item, a family items, or all items of that seller. If used for the firm as a whole, the preferred term is trade name.

Brand Choice Models – The stochastic models of individual brand choice focus on the brand that will be purchased on a particular purchase occasion, given that a purchase event will occur. This type of model include Bernoulli process and Markov models. Models in this category vary in their treatment of population heterogeneity, purchase event feedback, and exogenous market factors.

Brand Contacts – Any information bearing experience that a customer or prospect has with the brand, the product category, or the sponsoring organization that relates to the marketer’s product or service.

Brand Development Index (BDI) –  The measure of the extent to which the sales of products in a market category have captured the total potential in a geographical area, based on the population of that area and the average consumption per user nationally. The brand development index is usually calculate for separate metropolitan areas, and is used to determine high potential (underdeveloped areas for new product entries or for primary demand promotions.

Brand Equity – The value of a brand. From a consumer perspective, brand equity is based on consumer attitudes about positive brand attributes and favorable consequences of brand use.

Brand Extensions – A product line extension marketed under the same general brand as a previous item or items. To distinguish the brand extension from the other item (s) under the primary brand, one can either add a secondary brand identification or add a generic.

Brand Generic – This is a second half of a product’s identifying title. Brand is the first half, and identifies the general class of item, (Example: jello (brand) gelatin dessert (generic). This is not to be confused with generic brand 9such as on some low-price items in supermarkets) for which there is no individual brand.

Brand Image – How people in the market perceive the identifying marks of the product, rather than the characteristics of the product itself. Thus, the Brand may convey an impression of economy, status, high value, etc. Recognizing this aspect, many marketers engage in considerable study before deciding on a name for a product which they intend to use as a brand.  2. The perception of a brand in the minds of persons. The brand image is a mirror reflection (though perhaps inaccurate) of the brand personality or product being. It is what people believe about a brand -their thoughts, feelings, expectations.  See: Symbol Compare with: Product Image

Brand Indifference – A purchasing pattern characterized by a low degree of brand loyalty.

Brand Insistence – Brand Loyalty at the extreme. The user will accept no substitute. See: Specialty Good

Brand Label – A simple label which tells little more than the brand name of the product, the maker, and such other minimum information required by law.

Brand Loyalty – The faithfulness displayed by a user toward a brand, measured by relative length of time or regularity of the item’s use. It is known that much switching occurs. A considerable amount of research is devoted to finding the reasons for and the volume of the switches. 2. (sales promotion definition) The situation in which a consumer generally buys the same manufacturer-originated product or service repeatedly over time rather than buying from multiple suppliers within the category. 3. (consumer behavior definition) The degree to which a consumer consistently purchases the same brand within a product class.  See: Brand Switching, Brand Insistence

Brand Manager – Essentially the same as: Product Manager

Brand Mark – The brand mark is that part of a brand name that cannot be spoken. It most commonly is a symbol, picture, design, distinctive lettering, color, or a combination of these.

Brand Name – Often used when referring to words, numbers, or initials used as a trademark of a product. Usually means the vocalizable portion of the trademark. 2. The brand name is that part of a brand that can be spoken. it includes letters, numbers, or words. The term trademark covers all forms of brand (brand name, brand mark, etc.), but brand name is the form most often meant when trademark is used.

Brand Names Foundation – A non-profit association of persons interested in promoting awareness of brands in buying.

Brand Personality – This is psychological nature of a particular brand as intended by its sellers, though persons in the marketplace may see the brand otherwise (called brand image). These two perspectives compare to the personalities of individual humans: what we intend or desire, and what others see or believe.

Brand Switching – The decision of the user to select from among the available products or services of like type, one different from that which he bought the last time. 2. A purchasing pattern characterized by a change from one brand to another. See: Brand Loyalty

Brand-Switching Matrix – A two-way table that indicates which brands a sample of people purchased in one period and which brands they purchased in a subsequent period, thus highlighting the switches occurring among and between brands as well as the number of persons who purchased the same brand in both periods.

BRANDAID – A decision support system for determining the marketing mix for a particular brand. The model has submodels dealing with advertising spending level, price, and salesperson effort (e.i., dollars per customer per year). Its parameters can be calibrated by combining historical data (e.g., on sales, market share, advertising spending, etc.) with structured subjective judgments (Little 1975).

Branded Merchandise – Goods that are identified by brands. This contrasts with generic brands, which are identified only by commodity type.

Branding, Individual – Using separate brands for each product, without a family brand to tie them to other brands of that firm. Individual brand are used when the products are different physically, are of different quality levels, are targeted for different uses or users, or vary in some other ways that may cause confusion or loss of sale if brought together under a family brand umbrella.

Branding, Line Family – Using a family brand to cover only some of a firm’s products. Its contrasts with those cases where the term family brand is used only to designate the firm’s entire product line.

Bread-and-Butter Assortments – Same as: Never-Out list

Breadth of Line – The extent of the variety and/or Assortment of items produced or bought for resale. The range among manufacturers and middlemen extends from a few items to many thousands. See: Line

Break – A quick, extensive decline in the price of a commodity. See: Bulge

Break-Bulk – The process of dividing larger quantities into smaller quantities in transportation-warehousing system as goods get closer to the final market.

Breaking Bulk – (1) The physical act of dividing large, homogeneous lot into small lots. (2) Unloading and distributing all or a portion of the contents of a freight vehicle. See: Assorting

Break-Down Approach – A way of allocating the advertising budget to lines of offerings. It begins with a sum total budget; this is divided by the one in charge of promotion in conference with the various persons responsible for the lines. See: Build-Up Approach

Break-Even Analysis – The activity which usually results in a Break-Even Chart. If calculated in units, the Break-Even Point is found by dividing total Fixed Cost by the excess of price over Average Variable Cost.

Break-Even Chart – A projection, based on Fixed Costs and Variable Cost elements, of the unit volumes required at various selected selling prices for the firm just to cover all of the costs associated with a product. Often includes, also, the relative profit or loss position for the selling prices at various selected unit volumes.

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