Professional Stratification

Extended Family – A family that consists of more than just the parents and children. Included in the extended family are uncles, aunts, grandparents, nephews, cousins or even less closely associated “relations.” In western countries the extended family rarely exists. The household consists of parents, children and an aunt is too small to be called … Read more


Inner-Directedness – A system of values prevalent in production-oriented societies in which members of the society are taught specific value systems dependent on self-sufficiency and inner values. Innovation – In the marketing literature, innovation implies the introduction of a new product that is very different from the established products or at least perceived to be … Read more

Editing Questionnaire

  Double-barreled Question – A question on a questionnaire, in which two different things are being asked simultaneously. The respondent is unable to answer effectively. The answer is valueless as it is not clear which question is being answered. For example: Are you for or against longer summer holidays and tax cuts?” The respondent who … Read more

Lead Time

Lead Time – Period that elapse between two specific moments in time. For example: the time that elapses between a prototype’s being developed and its manufacture and distribution to the retail trade. Letter of Intent – It is usually a time-consuming operation for a marketing research agency to draw up a research proposal for a … Read more

Multi-Client Research

Multi-Client Research – Syn: Syndicated Service     A form of marketing research in which a number of interested parties jointly participate in a research project. Such research is usually carried out through the facilities of a research agency. Multi-client research is always directed at a single subject (for example: cigar smokers, grocers, TV commercials), … Read more

Diagnostic Research

Client – Syn: Principal The person who directs a market research agency to put forward a research proposal and who instructs the agency to put forward a research proposal and who instructs the agency to carry out the survey in its original or in an amended form. The client usually pays for the research. (Sometimes … Read more

Error of Measurement

Error of Measurement – Error(s) made in a study because the measuring instrument is no entirely accurate. See also: Measuring Instrument/Standard error of measurements Experimental Error – The variation that is probable and that may be anticipated in every instance in which an experiment is duplicated. An adequate experimental design must include adequate safeguards against … Read more

Internal Consistency

Internal Consistency – The degree to which different questions (for example, in a questionnaire) measure the same problem or subject. The mutual coherence of the questions. Interrater Reliabilty – Syn: Interjudge reliability/Intersubjectivity See: Interjudge Reliability Intersubjectivity – Syn: Interjudge Reliability/Interrater reliability See: Interjudge Reliability Method of Item Analysis – A method of measuring the reliability … Read more

Environmental Variable

Environmental Variable – A variable that (may) exert influence on the behavior of a person in a specific situation. Environmental variables are not studied, unless the study specifically concerns just these variables. Exogenous Variable – Exo (Greek) = outside. A variable that exerts influence on the results of a study. This variable falls outside the … Read more

Dependent Variable

Control Condition(s) -The total of all variables in an experiment that may be controlled, that is to say, kept constant, in order to permit study of other variables. See also: Experiment Control Group – A group of subjects in an experimental research project, serving as a control for the experimental research project, serving as a … Read more