Economies of Scale

Economics – The scientific study of the allocation of scarce resources under unlimited and competitive use. See also: Econometrics/Demand/Supply/Scarcity Economies of Scale – Reduction in average production costs due to increased output, higher internal production, a merger with another company, etc. Economics of scale work up to a certain level. After that level has been … Read more

Business Barometer

Aggregation – Aggrare (Latin)= add to. The collection of primary data in an aggregate (=cluster). Generally, the objective of aggregation is to provide findings in an abbreviated form. For example, national incomes and price indices are aggregated, in contrast to the income of an individual or the price of a single product. Average Life – … Read more


Poster – A printed advertisement in both large and small format (size standards vary by country)located generally in officially permitted positions on walls, buildings, stations. The target group comprises those who physically pass in the immediate vicinity or “passing trade.” Publication Interval – The period between the appearance of two consecutive issues of a medium. … Read more

Pilot Issue/Pilot

Controlled Circulation – The distribution of a printed medium to people defined by the medium publisher as (part of) his market. In some countries the controlled circulation of media may only be given to those who have requested receipt of it in writing. In practice, controlled circulation media cover primarily professional and selective media. In … Read more

Public Relations

Jingle – Syn: Tune 1. Music and text combined in a commercial generally sung, and possessing an attractive rhythm. 2. Commercial that is completely musical 3. Tune that, for years after a commercial has been shown, is still associated with it. See also: Commercial Logo – The name, abbreviation, initials or symbol of an enterprise … Read more

Shopping Behavior

Recreational shopping – Syn: Fun shopping See: Fun Shopping Retail Price Index – An index providing periodic reviews of the changes in retail prices in certain sectors or geographical regions. See also: Consumer Price Index Retail trade – All outlets that sell electronically reads codes marked on packaging, coupons, etc.- for example, the U.P.C. Or … Read more

Advertising Objective

Advertising Objective – A specific communication task to be achieved, related to a defined group, time, duration and penetration level. To verify if the objective has been achieved, it must be defined as accurately as possible. See also: Dagmar Model Advertising Target Group – A group of people to which an advertising message is directed. This … Read more


Address List – Syn: Mailing List See: Mailing List Chain – Syn: Multiple Store See: Multiple Store Channel of Distribution – The route a product or service follows on its way from the producer to final user. Normally used to describe the enterprises that play a role in the transfer of ownership of a product … Read more

Brand Awareness

Strength/weakness Profile – Profile based upon an analysis of strengths and weaknesses See also: Strength/weakness Analysis Target Group – Syn: Prospects The specific group of consumers or users for whom a product, service, advertising message, etc. is intended. One can distinguish marketing targets (for all marketing activities) and advertising targets for all advertising activities). Further … Read more

Replacement Cycle

Positioning – An advertiser’s strategy in creating a particular image with consumers for a product, brand or service that distinguishes itself from that of product references can be created. Preferences – A particular product or service is perceived as better or more attractive so long as a comparison with another can be made. Price – … Read more