Circular – Regular or small sheets of the paper printed on one or both sides intended for delivery by mail or by hand.

Circulation -(1) The number of copies of a publication distributed. May be counted as paid and unpaid. (2) Used loosely to refer to the number of homes regularly tuned to a certain broadcast station. (3) The number of persons who have an opportunity to observe a transit advertising display during a stated period. Reported by rider, measured by the fare box; and by exposure.

Circulation Rate Base – The circulation that a magazine guarantees as a minimum. Should the circulation drop below this consistently, the publisher will make a pro rate refund.

Circular Routing – A method for scheduling sales calls that involves circular patterns.

Circulation Waste – Same as: Waste Circulation

City Zone – The area in which newspaper circulates that is judged to be characteristic of the city as contrasted with the suburbs or rural areas.

Classic – Same as: Basic (3)

Classification – As applied to merchandise, this term indicates all the items of a given kind without further breakdown as to price, color, e.t.c., all reasonably substitutable for one another as perceived by a retail customer.

Classification Control – Same as: Open-to-Buy control

Classification Merchandising – Emphasis on small, homogeneous classes of merchandise as the most desirable units for control purposes. The major distinction between classifications and departments is that the former are units of selling responsibility whereas the latter are units of buying responsibility.

Classified Advertising – One of the two broad division of advertising in newspaper and some magazines. It appears in special columns on pages where the advertising is assembled by product or service. Usually the selection of type faces and sizes is very limited, as is the freedom of layout. The other broad division is display advertising. See: Classified Display Advertising

Classified Display Advertising – Some newspapers offer special sections devoted to only one product or service, e.g., real estate, in which the layout and the elements of the advertisement are virtually unlimited, as in other parts of the paper. Advertising in these sections combines the freedom of display advertising with the grouping advantage of classified advertising.

Class Magazine – Used in a general way to describe a publication directed to and which reaches selected groups of high-income readers. In contrast to: Mass Magazine

Class Railroad – One which has annual gross revenues of $50 million or more. In the United States the around 56 such railroads operate 96% of the total railroad mileage, handle more than 99% of the ton-miles of rail freight traffic, and earn about 99% of the operating revenues of all line-haul railroads.

Class Rate – (1) a special transportation rate for certain classes of commodities. Usually expressed as a percent of the base rate. See: Commodity Rate (20 A charge made for television time according to the desirability of the time period. The most costly are designated A rates, the next B, and so on. The time classifications vary from station to station because each sets its own according to the conditions peculiar to the total environment in which each station exists.

Classic Merchandise – The merchandise that is not influenced by style changes from which demand virtually always exists.

Classical Conditioning – 1. (consumer behavior definition) A process through which previously neutral stimulus, by being paired with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to elicit a response very similar to the response originally elicited by the unconditioned stimulus. 2. (consumer behavior definition) A traditional approach of ten credited to the work of Ivan Pavlov. it is a belief that when a stimulus that elicits a response is paired with another stimulus, the second stimulus will elicit behavior similar to the original response.

Classical Probability – A probability determined by the relative frequency with which an event occurs when an experiment is repeated under controlled conditions.

Classification – A grouping of merchandise into a homogeneous category usually smaller than a department. It is particularly useful for control purposes.

Classification Control – A form of dollar inventory control in which the dollar value of each classification of goods is smaller than the total stock of the department – e.g. the sporting goods department may be divided into several classifications or dissections, such as golf, fishing, active sport, etc.

Clearance Sale – An end-of-season sale to make room for new goods. It is also pushing the sale of slow-moving, shop-worn, and demonstration model goods.

Clearing House – The central processing location where coupons or other sale promotion offers are collected, analyzed and sorted for payment or fulfillment.

Clean – Describes a display program involving the retailer in no complicated paper work, no special handling or pricing, and otherwise requiring a minimum of effort.

Cleaning in Transit – a privilege granted by a carrier whereby a shipment such as an agricultural product maybe stopped at a certain point for cleaning and then resume its journey with minimal, if any,increase in charges.

Client – The term used to indicate an advertiser who is being served by an advertising agency.

Close – The culmination of a sales presentation in which a salesperson attempts to get a customer to commit to buying a product or service.

Close-out – An offer at a reduced price to clear slow-moving or incomplete stock. it is also an incomplete assortment, the remainder of a line of merchandise that is to be discontinued, offered at a low price to ensure immediate sale.

Closed Stock – Items sold only in sets, with no assurance to the customer that the same pattern and quality can be bought at any later time. Thus there is no provision for replacing broken pieces.

Closed-Door Discount House – A type of discount store that sells only to consumers who purchase a membership card.

Clubbing Offer – An arrangement whereby subscriptions to two or more different publication are offered at a lower, combination price. A consideration for an advertiser in judging the composition of the circulations of the publications.

Club plan Selling – An arrangement in which a consumer is awarded prizes or granted discount buying privileges by getting new customers to join the club. the club is the group of customers served by the selling organization, and one joins by making purchases

Clucking Hens – New or unusual concerns for a retail store’s top management which demand time and attention.

Cluster – A group of small specialty stores located without overall planning in a high-density residential area.

Cluster Analysis – A body of statistical techniques concerned with developing natural groupings of object based on the relationships of the p variables describing the objects.

Clustering – A heavy clutter situation,especially in broadcast media. If the networks continue the limitation on non-program time and the number of program interruptions, competitive pressures may result in an increase in clustering.

Cluster Sample – A probability sample distinguished by two-step procedure in which (1) the parent population is divided into mutually exclusive and exhaustive subsets, and (2) a random sample of subsets is selected. If the investigator then uses all of the population elements in the selected subsets for the sample, the procedure is one-stage cluster sampling; if a sample of elements is selected probabilistically from the subsets, the procedure is two-stage cluster sampling.

Cluster Marketing – Featuring a group of related products in various advertising media as one unit of a number of items suitable for interchangeable use for a specific purpose. The effect is to position them to a particular target market.

Cluster Sample – A random or probability sample that uses groups of people rather than individuals as the respondent unit. See: Cluster Sampling

Cluster Sampling – A method of developing a probability sample by randomly selecting the elements in groups rather than individually. Used where it would be usually difficult or expensive to get a listing of the entire population from which to derive the sample. When all the elements in the selected group are included in the sample, the process is called single stage;when there is further selection within the groups, it is called multistage. See: Cluster Sample

Clutter – Several commercials in broadcast media, or advertisements in print media, following one another without intervening program time or editorial matter. Some media will not accept piggybacks, and otherwise regulate the amount of clutter. Preceding and succeeding advertisements are of great interest to advertisers in all media. See: Product Protection

Clutter Position – An advertisement placed within a series of other advertisements, whether in print or broadcast media. Sometimes the first and last of the series are excluded from this designation.       See: Clutter

C.O.D – Abbreviation for: Cash-on-delivery terms. Sometimes said to stand for: Collect-in-delivery. Used in a situation where the buyer does not qualify for credit terms, yet there is every reason to believe that he will pay for the goods when brought to him by a carrier.

Code Price – The price which results when the trade discount is deducted from the list price.

Coding – a technical procedure by means of which data collected, usually on a questionnaire, are placed into one of a group of exhaustive classes that have been either predetermined or determined by the researcher on the basis of the types of response received. See: editing, Tabulation


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