Double Sampling

Dollar-Bill Size Coupon – A coupon about the size of paper money. Frequently part of a Print Medium Advertisement to be cut out and presented at the store when the item is purchased.
See: Couponing, Punch-Card Coupon

Dollar Control – That type of control exemplified by the “open-to-buy” concept. A control in gross dollars amounts. Same as: Open-to-Buy Control, Classification Control

Dollar Plan – In retailing , a budgeting technique that relates planned sales, planned stocks, and planned profit all in money amounts. See: Open-to-Buy Control

Domesticated Markets – The markets that once were competitive that have been reconstructed as a result of voluntary, long-term binding agreements. A significant proportion of all transactions in these markets are planned and administered on the basis of negotiated roles of exchange. The benefits are reduced uncertainty, reduced transaction costs and access to economies of scale.

Domestics – 1. In retailing, a classification that generally includes sheets, pillow cases, towels, curtains, and the like. 2. A subdivision of the piece goods classification of department store merchandise, including muslin, sheets, pillowcases, tubing, cotton, outing flannel, etc.

Domination – A competitive Tactic which involves enough concentration of effort or funds in a market area or medium which enable the firm to be the significant factor there, rather than to compete as just another come-along in an already crowded environment. Often most effective in conjunction with other tactics.

Door-Opener – Any interesting item, usually inexpensive, given to a housewife as a premium by a door-to-door salesperson to induce the housewife to listen to the salesperson’s offer.

Donor Market – A target audience asked to give money, goods, body organs, or blood to an organization or individual without expecting a tangible benefit in return. Comment: Donor marketing can be carried out by for-profit organizations. For-profit organizations can also be the recipients of the donations(although this is rare).

Double Billing – A practice engaged in by some Local Media of giving the local advertiser two invoices, one at the local rate which he pays to the medium,the other at the one-time rate which he uses to support his claim for repayment on a cooperative advertising arrangement. Considered by may to be an unethical practice.

Double-Carding – An arrangement in transit advertising whereby two messages of one advertiser are specified for each vehicle. May be available only as a special buy.

Double-Decker – In outdoor advertising, one message panel erected above another.

Double Sampling – A method of obtaining a reasonably precise sample from a population of which the researcher can get little advance knowledge. A preliminary sample is taken to obtain only that information needed for taking the more precise second sample, the letter to be used for the intensive data-gathering effort.

Double Spotting – In Broadcast Media, the placing of two commercials without any intervening program material. See: Clutter, Triple Spotting

Double Stack – A system for stacking two containers vertically on a single rail car. this system doubles the carrying capacity of each rail car and significantly reduces product damage.

Double Truck – An advertisement printed on two facing pages of a publication. Same as: Double-Page Spread, but if across the middle pages called center spread.

Double-Barreled Questions – A question that calls for two responses and thereby creates confusion for the respondent.

Downsizing – An act of eliminating levels, units, groups, or individuals in an organization.

Draw – An amount of money allowed a salesman each week to pay his expenses until the results of his efforts are known and his total compensation can be computed, usually on the basis of commissions. Sometimes the draw is guaranteed, in which case it becomes a minimum, non- invadable compensation. Sometimes the draw is nothing more than a non-interest-bearing loan against anticipated earnings. Sometimes called: drawing account

Drayage – Usually applied to local, short-distance hauling of freight. See: Cartage
Drive – A desire characterized by high intensity and priority, and, often extreme urgency. See: Affectional Drives, Ego-Bolstering Drives, Ego-Defensive Drives

Drive Time – A prime time in radio consisting of those times of the day when large numbers of people are driving in their own cars to or from work.

Drop-In – In broadcasting, a local commercial placed within the time slot of a nationally sponsored network program.

Drop-Out Halftone – A halftone from which dots have been removed from various areas to achieve greater contrast. Same as: High-Light Half Tone

Drop Shipment – 1. Essentially the same as distribution Order but more frequently applied to a single order and shipment. 2. (physical distribution definition) Limited-function wholesalers known as drop shippers seldom take physical possession of the goods. they often specialize in heavy or bulky commodities that require the economies of volume shipment. The drop shipper buys the carload, but does not take physical possession. The order, or drop shipment, is shipped direct from the supplier to the customer. 2. (retailing definition) A special type of wholesaler who deals in large lots shipped direct from the factory to the customer of the drop shipper, takes title to the goods, assumes responsibility for the shipment after it leaves the factory,extends credit, collects the account, and incurs all the sales costs necessary to secure orders. See: Desk Jobber

Drop Shipper – Same as: Desk Jobber

Drummer – An American salesman of former times who called on retailers or greeted them as they arrived at the buying centers. Many of the methods he used are now considered unethical.

Dry Run – A television rehearsal without cameras. Same as: Dry Rehearsal

Dual Career Path, Sales – The provision of a choice made available to junior salespeople in an organization to receive more pay and recognition through promotions within the sales rank with compensation being similar at similar levels along each path.

Dual Distribution – 1. The practice of some manufacturers of planting channels distribution through both wholly owned and independent establishments at the same time. 2. (channels of distribution definition) This describes a wide variety of marketing arrangements by which a manufacturer or a wholesaler reaches its final markets by employing two or more different types of channels for the same basic product. 2 ( retailing definition) Under this type of distribution program, manufacturers sell directly to contractors and other large accounts at prices equal  to or less than those available to retailers in the same market who are reselling the manufacturer’s products.

Dual Merchandising – The offering for sale by an individual firm of products made by others as well as itself. Occurs primarily where the different goods are directly complementary or their sale results in an expansion of total market coverage.

Dual Pricing – Essentially the same as: Unit Pricing (2)

Dubbing -(1) In broadcasting, the addition of pictures or sound to the original recording. (2) Sometimes used to indicate duplicate recordings of original material, not necessarily in the same sequence or arrangement.

Dummy – (1) A mock-up of a publication. (2) An empty package used for display. 3. A preliminary layout for ad, brochure, poster, or other printed advertising material showing the position and size of the headlines, subheads, body copy and artwork.

Dummy Master Record – A record put into an ADP system for testing or auditing purposes. Its data is fictitious. See: Dummy Transactions

Dumping – 1. (economic definition) The practice of selling a product at a lower price overseas than at home. 2. (global marketing definition) The practice of selling merchandise in foreign markets at lower prices than those charged in the domestic market.

Duopoly – A market situation in which there are only two marketers of an economic good, while demand conditions remain competitive.

Durable Good – A consumer good that is used over an extended rather than a brief period of time. It is usually, but not necessarily, of more substantial manufacture. Examples are automobiles and furniture.

Dwell Time – The amount of time consumers spend waiting in line.

Dwelling Unit – A single home, apartment, townhouse, or other unit in which a single person, family or cohesive set of unrelated individual reside. Typically, many goods are purchased in common.

Dyadic Relationship – A relationship between two interacting and mutually influencing organizational entities. Most buyer-seller relationships in organizational markets are dyadic, while in the consumer marketplace individual buyers rarely have the power to influence sellers.

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