Commercial Psychology – The study of consumer behavior and industrial communications. The following are included in this subject: mass communication, creative formation of advertising messages, media models, integration of the communication mix into the marketing mix. See also: Mass Communication/Consumer behavior/Psychology
Cultural Psychology – Poorly defined psychological specialty. It refers to study of the influences exerted by culture on the behavior of the individual. For example: what is the influence of religion, climate, history, etc. on the purchase of specific durable consumer goods? Compare the umbrella of the Northern European countries with a parasol of the Mediterranean countries. See also: Culture/Environmental Psychology
Environmental Psychology – Classic research-study in industrial psychology. American psychologists, at the end of 1920’s, made a study of the employees of the Hawthorne factory. At that time they found (which was something new) that employees perform better when given more attention and greater appreciation for their work. Personal treatment is more fruitful than is monetary reward by itself. This fact was discovered by coincidence, when a group of employees under study started to work harder as a result of the interest and attention of the investigators. This classic study illustrates the influence exerted by the investigator on that which is being investigated. See also: Industrial Psychology
Industrial and Organizational Psychology – Psychology specialty. Within this field of study, the researcher is concerned with the relation between man and his work. Generally its objective is to increase an organization’s productivity, remove tensions, etc. Achievement of that objective often involves taking the employees’ interests into consideration by, for instance, establishing a works council or management advisory board.
Industrial Psychology – Part of industrial and organizational psychology. Involves all psychological aspects of man and his work, or more specifically, the (social, personal) problems of employee X in company Y.
Instructional Psychology – One or more recently developed branches of psychology. Its object is the study of those factors that are crucial to the learning process, such as environment, the person supplying the information (teacher), the medium, the learning situation, etc. See also: Learning
Job Analysis – Determination of all factors and tasks that are part of a job, function or profession. This analysis is often made in order to develop a test capable of predicting the success in a specific job and to diagnose potential work problems. It may also be of aid in the improvement of production. See also: Industrial Psychology
Life-span Psychology – Syn: Developmental Psychology See: Developmental Psychology
Organizational Psychology – A branch of industrial psychology. See also: Industrial and organizational psychology
Psycholinguistics – An interdisciplinary area of study in psychology and linguistics that involves the relationship between language and person in the broadest sense.
Time and Motion Studies – Research in industrial and organizational psychology concerning the time and movement required for the performance of specific tasks. Its aim to enhance efficiency and productivity in a factory or office.
Traffic Psychology – The study of the behavior of people in traffic situations. This specialty distinguishes: road traffic psychology; marine traffic psychology. Traffic psychology poses questions such as:
- Why is it that certain drivers are involved in accidents more often than others? Is this circumstance the result of clumsiness, fear or slow reaction? Is it a question of personality? (accident-prone drivers?).
- What makes a pilot a good pilot and what traits must a good pilot have?
- At what speed does the process of perception proceed in road traffic? Is a person capable of perceiving three traffic signs on a single pole when he passes at a speed of 60 miles an hour?
- What is he optimum seating posture in an automobile, and what is the best location for installation of handbrake or light-switch? In what manner does fatigue in road traffic arise, and after how much time does such fatigue occur?
- What is the influence of alcohol on (traffic) behavior? Is it true that the use of alcohol impairs (sometimes fatally) the capacity to react? What quantity of alcohol can a driver tolerate without impairing the capacity to drive?
Understandable Behavior – A key- concept of psychology. It pertains to all activities of the (human) organism capable of being perceived or recorded, or to activities leading to alterations in circumstances, perception or registration. Examples of behavior: purchasing, reading, running, crying, thinking, dreaming – in so far as these are capable of being registered by instruments. The term behavior does, in fact, provide a substitute for such terms as soul, spirit, etc. as key-concepts.